375 research outputs found

    Photo fenton like process Fe3+/(NH4)2 S2O8/UV for the degradation of Di azo dye congo red using low iron concentration

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    Degradation of Congo Red (CR) a di azo dye in aqueous solution is investigated by a Photo Fenton like process using Fe3+ ions as the catalyst and peroxy disulfate as the oxidant. The influence of various reaction parameters like, concentration of Fe3+ ions, concentration of the dye, concentration of ammonium persulfate, pH of the solution and the presence of hydroxyl radical scavenger are studied and optimal conditions are reported. The degradation rate decreased at higher dye concentration and at higher pH. The rate constant (k), catalytic efficiency (kc) and process efficiency (Φ) are evaluated for different concentration of Fe3+ ions. The degradation of CR by the photo Fenton like process leads to the formation of 4-Amino, 3-azo naphthalene sulphonic acid, dihydroxy substituted naphthalene, dihydroxy substituted biphenyl, phenol, quinol etc., as intermediates, based on which probable degradation mechanism is proposed. These results show that a photo Fenton like process could be useful technology for the mineralization of di azo dyes under lower concentration of iron in acidic conditions. The present process is advantageous as it lowers the sludge production resulting from the iron compl

    In-depth Study of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India

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    This In-Depth Study of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India is a full analysis of the pluralistic extension system in India, how it has changed over many years and the direction it is currently moving. Chapter-1 outlines the Evolution of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India and the changes that have occurred since about 1871, including the establishment of the Department of Agriculture in 1882. Following independence in 1947, many changes have happened as outlined in this first chapter, including the Community Development Program (CDP), the Intensive Agricultural District Program (IADP), including dissemination of high-yielding varieties during the Green Revolution, the Training and Visit (T&V) approach and then the move to the decentralized, farmer-led and market driven approach influenced by the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) model. Chapter-2 gives an Overview of the Public Extension System within the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), the State Departments of Agriculture and then provides more detailed information about the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) and the public extension system in India. It starts with an overview of the organizational structure at the national level, including the Department of Agricultural Research and Extension (DARE), then into the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) and Directorate of Extension within DAC. Then, it moves into the KVKs, which are a critical linkage at the district level between research, extension and farmers. In short, KVKs focus on the specific agro-ecological conditions within each district and then, after conducting research on these different crops, livestock and other farming systems. Then it moves into the development of the ATMA model through two World Bank projects, which is now expand across all Indian districts. Chapter-3 outlines the Directorates of Extension Education within each State Agricultural Universities (SAUs). India is unique in having Extension units established within each SAU, since this extension approach was first introduced by selected US Land Grant Universities into these SAUs in the late 1950s and early 1960s. This chapter outlines the historical development of the extension within each SAU and then outlines the mandate, organizational structure, human resources and methods used within these SAUs and their relationship with the public extension system. Chapter-4 outlines the Private Sector Advisory Services being provided in India, especially in the provision of good advisory services through private Agri-Business Companies through the sale of inputs to farmers. In India, there are over 280,000 input supply firms, but many do not have sufficient knowledge and experience in providing good advisory services to farmers. At first, the public and private sector did not want to work together but through the ATMA approach, the public and private sector started working together and then, in 2004, the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) started training and giving diplomas to the participants from these private sector firms, especially in Andhra Pradesh (see: http://www.manage.gov.in/daesi/daesi.htm). Chapter-5 summarizes the role and activities of the different Commodity Boards currently operating in India, including: Central Silk Board (CSB), Coconut Development Board (CDB), Coffee Board, Coir Board, Rubber Board, Spices Board, Tea Board, Tobacco Board, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), National Horticulture Board (NHB), Cashew Export Promotion Council (CEPC), National Jute Board (NJB), and the National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories (NFCSF) and how each of these boards carry out extension and advisory services to the farmers being served. Chapter-6 outlines the Institutional Mechanism for Capacity Building to strengthen the pluralistic extension system in India. This chapter starts with an overview of the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), which is an autonomous organization that has had the most impact on strengthening the extension system in India. Next, it discusses the paradigm shift within the National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NAIM) in India; and then outlines the role of the Extension Education Institutes (EEIs). Finally, it moves to outline the role and structure of the State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institutes (SAMETIs), especially in strengthening the ATMA model in India. Chapter-7 is the conclusion chapter that outlines the Strengths and Weaknesses of India’s Pluralistic Extension System. It starts by outlining the Policy Framework and Reforms for strengthening the pluralistic extension system in India. Next, it outlines how to strengthen research-extension linkages as well as capacity building among extension workers. Next, it addresses how to empower farmers, including women farmers. It also outlines the use of Information Technology (IT) and how to strengthen it through different approaches. This chapter also outlines the changing role of government in extension and how the ATMA model can be strengthened following very specific details. The other issue is how to strengthen the SAMETIs, since they still need to be strengthened in providing service to district and block level extension workers. This chapter ends with a brief summary the key role that the public extension system can play in India

    Evidence for multiple roles for grainyheadlike 2 in the establishment and maintenance of human mucociliary airway epithelium

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    Most of the airways of the human lung are lined by an epithelium made up of ciliated and secretory luminal cells and undifferentiated basal progenitor cells. The integrity of this epithelium and its ability to act as a selective barrier are critical for normal lung function. In other epithelia, there is evidence that transcription factors of the evolutionarily conserved grainyheadlike (GRHL) family play key roles in coordinating multiple cellular processes required for epithelial morphogenesis, differentiation, remodeling, and repair. However, only a few target genes have been identified, and little is known about GRHL function in the adult lung. Here we focus on the role of GRHL2 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, both as undifferentiated progenitors and as they differentiate in air-liquid interface culture into an organized mucociliary epithelium with transepithelial resistance. Using a dominant-negative protein or shRNA to inhibit GRHL2, we follow changes in epithelial phenotype and gene transcription using RNA sequencing or microarray analysis. We identify several hundreds of genes that are directly or indirectly regulated by GRHL2 in both undifferentiated cells and air-liquid interface cultures. Using ChIP sequencing to map sites of GRHL2 binding in the basal cells, we identify 7,687 potential primary targets and confirm that GRHL2 binding is strongly enriched near GRHL2-regulated genes. Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that GRHL2 plays a key role in regulating many physiological functions of human airway epithelium, including those involving cell morphogenesis, adhesion, and motility

    Prevalence and incidence of hypertension: Results from a representative cohort of over 16,000 adults in three cities of south Asia

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    Background: Despite high projected burden, hypertension incidence data are lacking in South Asian population. We measured hypertension prevalence and incidence in the Center for cArdio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) adult cohort.Methods: The CARRS Study recruited representative samples of Chennai, Delhi, and Karachi in 2010/11, and socio-demographic and risk factor data were obtained using a standard common protocol. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in the sitting position using electronic sphygmomanometer both at baseline and two year follow-up. Hypertension and control were defined by JNC 7 criteria.Results: In total, 16,287 participants were recruited (response rate=94.3%) and two year follow-up was completed in 12,504 (follow-up rate=79.2%). Hypertension was present in 30.1% men (95% CI: 28.7-31.5) and 26.8% women (25.7-27.9) at baseline. BP was controlled in 1 in 7 subjects with hypertension. At two years, among non-hypertensive adults, average systolic BP increased 2.6mm Hg (95% CI: 2.1-3.1), diastolic BP 0.7mm Hg (95% CI: 0.4-1.0), and 1 in 6 developed hypertension (82.6 per 1000 person years, 95% CI: 80.8-84.4). Risk for developing hypertension was associated with age, low socio-economic status, current alcohol use, overweight, pre-hypertension, and dysglycemia. Risk of incident hypertension was highest (RR=2.95, 95% CI: 2.53-3.45) in individuals with pre-hypertension compared to normal BP. Collectively, 4 modifiable risk factors (pre-hypertension, overweight, dysglycemia, and alcohol use) accounted for 78% of the population attributable risk of incident hypertension.Conclusion: High prevalence and poor control of hypertension, along with high incidence, in South Asian adult population call for urgent preventive measures

    Viral nanomotors for packaging of dsDNA and dsRNA

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    While capsid proteins are assembled around single-stranded genomic DNA or RNA in rod-shaped viruses, the lengthy double-stranded genome of other viruses is packaged forcefully within a preformed protein shell. This entropically unfavourable DNA or RNA packaging is accomplished by an ATP-driven viral nanomotor, which is mainly composed of two components, the oligomerized channel and the packaging enzymes. This intriguing DNA or RNA packaging process has provoked interest among virologists, bacteriologists, biochemists, biophysicists, chemists, structural biologists and computational scientists alike, especially those interested in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, AAA+ family proteins, energy conversion, cell membrane transport, DNA or RNA replication and antiviral therapy. This review mainly focuses on the motors of double-stranded DNA viruses, but double-stranded RNA viral motors are also discussed due to interesting similarities. The novel and ingenious configuration of these nanomotors has inspired the development of biomimetics for nanodevices. Advances in structural and functional studies have increased our understanding of the molecular basis of biological movement to the point where we can begin thinking about possible applications of the viral DNA packaging motor in nanotechnology and medical applications