219 research outputs found

    Influence of balanced fertilization on productivity and nutrient use efficiency of cereal based cropping systems

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    Increasing the use efficiency of nitrogen in system mode was always a concern due to escalating input cost of fertilizer. The “researcher designed farmer managed trials” were conducted in farmers’ field during 2009 -10 at 27 districts covering 17 states. A total of 192 trials in rice-rice, 233 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) -wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 48 in rice- greengram and 77 in maize-wheat system were conducted with five common treatments, viz. control, recommended quantity of N alone, NP, NK and NPK in all the locations and cropping systems. Application of recommended quantity of NPK in all the systems recorded higher yield and increase was found to be more than 50% in maize (Zea mays L.) -wheat and rice-rice systems and > 30% in rice-greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and rice-wheat systems over application of N alone. On an average additional yield of 2 794 kg rice equivalent yield (REY)/ha was realized, in cereal based systems with application of all the nutrients together instead of N alone. Among the various systems, maize-wheat was found to respond well to balanced application as it recorded 162% increase in yield over control. Partial factor productivity (PFP) of N, can be increased by >50% in rice-rice and maize-wheat system through application of recommended dose of NPK. Efficiency of applied nutrients measured in the form of agronomic efficiency was found to be >100% for all the systems under balanced application compared to N alone, or with P with K. Similarly combined application increased the P and K efficiency in all the systems with maize-wheat recording the highest efficiency of K. Relative response of treatment over control also displayed similar trend. Marginal returns due to application of NPK together was found to be 136.7, 24.5, 11.5 and 46.4% higher in rice-rice, rice-wheat, rice-greengram and maize-wheat systems respectively over application of N alone. Balanced application of N, P and K was found to increase the system productivity and nutrient use efficiency of cereal based systems

    Evaluation of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in rice (Oryza sativa) - groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) system under Island ecosystem

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    Field experiment was conducted during wet and dry seasons of 2007-09 at Field Crops Research Farm of Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands to evaluate System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in rice and its residual effect on groundnut in rice (Oryza sativa L.) – groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) systems. Time of planting, spacing and nitrogen practices evaluated significantly influenced the yield attributes and yield of rice, while the residual effect of N management practices had a positive influence on the yield attributes and yield of succeeding groundnut. Early planting in second fortnight of June with 20 cm × 20 cm spacing recorded higher panicles/m2 (9.1 %), higher number of filled grains/ panicle (108), higher grain yield (4 678 kg/ha), about 3% higher REY, productivity (26.8 kg/ha/day), and total profitability (` 62 882/ha) compared to the same time of planting with wider spacing (25 cm × 25 cm). Though application of 100% Recommended Dose of Nitrogen (RDN) through urea recorded highest grain yield (4 465 kg/ha) of rice, it was comparable with 50% RDN through Gliricidia + 50% RDN through urea and 75% RDN through Gliricidia + 25% RDN through urea. Application of 50% RDN through Gliricidia + 50% RDN recorded nearly 6% higher REY and ` 6 565/ha more profitability higher output energy in rice-groundnut sequence compared to application of 100% RDN through urea. N management practices of rice, in the crop sequence of rice- groundnut were found to improve the soil nitrogen status. Early planting of rice in second fortnight of June at 20 cm × 20 cm with the application of 50% RDN through Gliricidia + 50% RDN through urea can be recommended for achieving higher productivity, profitability and energy use efficiency of rice - groundnut system in Island ecosystem

    Crop–livestock-integrated farming system: a strategy to achieve synergy between agricultural production, nutritional security, and environmental sustainability

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    IntroductionClimate change, nutritional security, land shrinkage, and an increasing human population are the most concerning factors in agriculture, which are further complicated by deteriorating soil health. Among several ways to address these issues, the most prominent and cost-effective means is to adopt an integrated farming system (IFS). Integrating farming systems with livestock enables a way to increase economic yield per unit area per unit of time for farmers in small and marginal categories. This system effectively utilizes the waste materials by recycling them via linking appropriate components, thereby minimizing the pollution caused to the environment. Further integrating livestock components with crops and the production of eggs, meat, and milk leads to nutritional security and stable farmer's income generation. So, there is a dire need to develop an eco-friendly, ecologically safe, and economically profitable IFS model.MethodsAn experiment was conducted to develop a crop–livestock-based integrated farming system model for the benefit of irrigated upland farmers in the semi-arid tropics for increasing productivity, farm income, employment generation, and food and nutritional security through efficient utilization of resources in the farming system.Results and discussionThe IFS model has components, viz., crop (0.85 ha) + horticulture (0.10 ha) + 2 cattles along with 2 calves in dairy (50 m2) + 12 female goats and 1 male goat (50 m2) + 150 numbers of poultry birds (50 m2) + vermicompost (50 m2) + kitchen garden (0.02 ha) + boundary planting + supporting activities (0.01 ha) in a one-hectare area. The model recorded a higher total MEY (162.31 t), gross return (689,773), net return (317,765), and employment generation (475 mandays). Further negative emissions of −15,118 CO2-e (kg) greenhouse gases were recorded under this model. The study conclusively reveals that integration of crop, horticulture, dairy, goat, poultry, vermicompost production, kitchen garden, and boundary planting models increases the net returns, B:C ratio, employment generation, nutritional security, and livelihoods of small and marginal farmers

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    Not AvailableClimate adversities have the potential to irreversibly damage the natural resource base on which agriculture depends and it is increasing production risks in many farming systems and reducing the ability of farmers and rural communities to manage these risks on their own. Around the world, resource-poor farmers are trying to adapt to the effects of climate change, which affect them disproportionately. In a context where the impact of climate change on the natural resource base is dramatically increasing, adoption of location-specific integrated management of natural resources for higher productivity and better resilience to erratic climatic events is becoming even more crucial. Since small farmers and rural communities are the starting point for efforts to adapt to climate change, the problems and solutions should be defined with their direct and active participation. It is necessary to use participatory farming system processes that empower smallholders to: draw on their expertise about ecology and management; overcome the constraints they face; create a sense of ownership; and share their visions and experiences with other partners. Farming system approach in small and marginal holders are expected to play a vital role in management of natural resources thereby reducing the climatic adversities. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAnD) and integrated farming is a new agricultural ecosystem. TAnD converts animal waste into useful resources including biogas (65% methane and 35% carbon dioxide) energy, nutrients for aquaculture and bio-fertilizer for horticultural produce. The duck integration in rice field increases the rice yield by reducing weed growth, insect population, improving soil physical properties and thereby root growth and tillering. It also increases the dissolved oxygen content in rice field. However, ducks in rice farming reduces the greenhouse effect; prevent the release of methane gas which is important to check global warming. Duck provides additional benefit in terms of egg and meat to the small land holders apart from the environmental benefits. Developing of climate riskcoping production system, resilient to weather vageries, require diversified structures in space and time such as crop rotations, crop- -livestock associations and the use of hedges, vegetative buffer strips and other farm landscaping practices such as raised and sunken bed , three tier systems etc. Accomplishing this can have an enormous impact on adaptation to drought, heavy rains and winds which are expected to be a common phenomenon under changed climatic scenario. Diversification of sensitive agricultural production systems (egrainfed farming) into less sensitive agricultural microenterprises has the potential to mitigate climate adversities.Not Availabl

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