316 research outputs found

    Three different manifestations of the quantum Zeno effect

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    Three different manifestations of the quantum Zeno effect are discussed, compared and shown to be physically equivalent. We look at frequent projective measurements, frequent unitary "kicks" and strong continuous coupling. In all these cases, the Hilbert space of the system splits into invariant "Zeno" subspaces, among which any transition is hindered.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figure

    Quantum Zeno dynamics: mathematical and physical aspects

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    If frequent measurements ascertain whether a quantum system is still in its initial state, transitions to other states are hindered and the quantum Zeno effect takes place. However, in its broader formulation, the quantum Zeno effect does not necessarily freeze everything. On the contrary, for frequent projections onto a multidimensional subspace, the system can evolve away from its initial state, although it remains in the subspace defined by the measurement. The continuing time evolution within the projected "quantum Zeno subspace" is called "quantum Zeno dynamics:" for instance, if the measurements ascertain whether a quantum particle is in a given spatial region, the evolution is unitary and the generator of the Zeno dynamics is the Hamiltonian with hard-wall (Dirichlet) boundary conditions. We discuss the physical and mathematical aspects of this evolution, highlighting the open mathematical problems. We then analyze some alternative strategies to obtain a Zeno dynamics and show that they are physically equivalent.Comment: 52 pages, 10 figure

    Modifying the lifetime of an unstable system by an intense electromagnetic field

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    We study the temporal behavior of a three-level system (such as an atom or a molecule), initially prepared in an excited state, bathed in a laser field tuned at the transition frequency of the other level. We analyze the dependence of the lifetime of the initial state on the intensity of the laser field. The phenomenon we discuss is related to both electromagnetic induced transparency and quantum Zeno effect.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures. Contribution to Sixth Central-European Workshop on Quantum Optics, Chudobin near Olomouc, Czech Republic, April-May 199

    Unstable systems and quantum Zeno phenomena in quantum field theory

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    We analyze the Zeno phenomenon in quantum field theory. The decay of an unstable system can be modified by changing the time interval between successive measurements (or by varying the coupling to an external system that plays the role of measuring apparatus). We speak of quantum Zeno effect if the decay is slowed and of inverse quantum Zeno (or Heraclitus) effect if it is accelerated. The analysis of the transition between these two regimes requires close scrutiny of the features of the interaction Hamiltonian. We look in detail at quantum field theoretical models of the Lee type.Comment: 25 pages, 6 figure

    Wigner function and coherence properties of cold and thermal neutrons

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    We analyze the coherence properties of a cold or a thermal neutron by utilizing the Wigner quasidistribution function. We look in particular at a recent experiment performed by Badurek {\em et al.}, in which a polarized neutron crosses a magnetic field that is orthogonal to its spin, producing highly non-classical states. The quantal coherence is extremely sensitive to the field fluctuation at high neutron momenta. A "decoherence parameter" is introduced in order to get quantitative estimates of the losses of coherence.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures. Contribution to the Sixth Central-European Workshop on Quantum Optics, Chudobin near Olomouc, Czech Republic, April-May 199

    Local Hamiltonians for Maximally Multipartite Entangled States

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    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) as non-degenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMES as eigenstates.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, published versio
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