424 research outputs found

    Seismic anisotropy of Precambrian lithosphere : Insights from Rayleigh wave tomography of the eastern Superior Craton

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    The seismic data used in this study are freely available from the CNDC (Canadian National Data Centre for Earthquake Seismology and Nuclear Explosion Monitoring) and IRIS DMC (Data Management Center) via their data request tools. The Leverhulme Trust (grant RPG-2013-332) and National Science Foundation are acknowledged for financial support. L.P. is supported by Janet Watson Imperial College Department Scholarship and the Romanian Government Research Grant NUCLEU. F.D. is supported by NSERC through the Discovery Grants and Canada Research Chairs program. We also thank two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor for insightful comments that helped improve the manuscript.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Existence of solutions to the diffusive VSC model

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    We prove existence of classical solutions to the so-called diffusive Vesicle Supply Centre (VSC) model describing the growth of fungal hyphae. It is supposed in this model that the local expansion of the cell wall is caused by a flux of vesicles into the wall and that the cell wall particles move orthogonally to the cell surface. The vesicles are assumed to emerge from a single point inside the cell (the VSC) and to move by diffusion. For this model, we derive a non-linear, non-local evolution equation and show the existence of solutions relevant to our application context, namely, axially symmetric surfaces of fixed shape, travelling along with the VSC at constant speed. Technically, the proof is based on the Schauder fixed point theorem applied to Hölder spaces of functions. The necessary estimates rely on comparison and regularity arguments from elliptic PDE theory

    Existence and linear stability of solutions of the ballistic VSC model

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    An equation for the dynamics of the vesicle supply center model of tip growth in fungal hyphae is derived. For this we analytically prove the existence and uniqueness of a traveling wave solution which exhibits the experimentally observed behavior. The linearized dynamics around this solution is analyzed and we conclude that all eigenmodes decay in time. Numerical calculation of the first eigenvalue gives a timescale T in which small perturbations will die out

    Dynamics of new strain emergence on a temporal network

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    Multi-strain competition on networks is observed in many contexts, including infectious disease ecology, information dissemination or behavioral adaptation to epidemics. Despite a substantial body of research has been developed considering static, time-aggregated networks, it remains a challenge to understand the transmission of concurrent strains when links of the network are created and destroyed over time. Here we analyze how network dynamics shapes the outcome of the competition between an initially endemic strain and an emerging one, when both strains follow a susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics, and spread at time scales comparable with the network evolution one. Using time-resolved data of close-proximity interactions between patients admitted to a hospital and medical health care workers, we analyze the impact of temporal patterns and initial conditions on the dominance diagram and coexistence time. We find that strong variations in activity volume cause the probability that the emerging strain replaces the endemic one to be highly sensitive to the time of emergence. The temporal structure of the network shapes the dominance diagram, with significant variations in the replacement probability (for a given set of epidemiological parameters) observed from the empirical network and a randomized version of it. Our work contributes towards the description of the complex interplay between competing pathogens on temporal networks.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Global S-wave tomography using receiver pairs: An alternative to get rid of earthquake mislocation

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    International audienceGlobal seismic tomography suffers from uncertainties in earthquake parameters routinely published in seismic catalogues. In particular, errors in earthquake location and origin-time may lead to strong biases in measured body wave delay-times and significantly pollute tomographic models. Common ways of dealing with this issue are to incorporate source parameters as additional unknowns into the linear tomographic equations, or to seek combinations of data to minimize the influence of source mislocations. We propose an alternative, physically-based method to desensitize direct S-wave delay-times to errors in earthquake location and origin-time. Our approach takes advantage of the fact that mislocation delay-time biases depend to first order on the earthquake-receiver azimuth, and to second order on the epicentral distance. Therefore, for every earthquake, we compute S-wave differential delay-times between optimized receiver pairs, such that a large part of their mislocation delay-time biases cancels out (for example origin-time fully subtracts out), while the difference of their sensitivity kernels remains sensitive to the model parameters of interest. Considering realistic, randomly distributed source mislocation vectors, as well as various levels of data noise and different synthetic Earths, we demonstrate that mislocation-related model errors are highly reduced when inverting for such differential delay-times, compared to absolute ones. The reduction is particularly rewarding for imaging the upper-mantle and transition zone. We conclude that using optimized receiver pairs is a suitable, low cost alternative to get rid of errors on earthquake location and origin-time for teleseismic direct S-wave traveltimes. Moreover, it can partly remove unilateral rupture propagation effects in cross-correlation delay-times, since they are similar to mislocation effects

    An objective rationale for the choice of regularisation parameter with application to global multiple-frequency S -wave tomography

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    In a linear ill-posed inverse problem, the regularisation parameter (damping) controls the balance between minimising both the residual data misfit and the model norm. Poor knowledge of data uncertainties often makes the selection of damping rather arbit

    Postnatal growth rate varies with latitude in range-expanding geese: The role of plasticity and day length

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    1. The postnatal growth period is a crucial life stage, with potential lifelong effects on an animal's fitness. How fast animals grow depends on their life‐history strategy and rearing environment, and interspecific comparisons generally show higher growth rates at higher latitudes. However, to elucidate the mechanisms behind this gradient in growth rate, intraspecific comparisons are needed. 2. Recently, barnacle geese expanded their Arctic breeding range from the Russian Barents Sea coast southwards, and now also breed along the Baltic and North Sea coasts. Baltic breeders shortened their migration, while barnacle geese breeding along the North Sea stopped migrating entirely. 3. We collected cross‐sectional data on gosling tarsus length, head length and body mass, and constructed population‐specific growth curves to compare growth rates among three populations (Barents Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea) spanning 17° in latitude. 4. Growth rate was faster at higher latitudes, and the gradient resembled the latitudinal gradient previously observed in an interspecific comparison of precocial species. Differences in day length among the three breeding regions could largely explain the observed differences in growth rate. In the Baltic, and especially in the Arctic population, growth rate was slower later in the season, most likely because of the stronger seasonal decline in food quality. 5. Our results suggest that differences in postnatal growth rate between the Arctic and temperate populations are mainly a plastic response to local environmental conditions. This plasticity can increase the individuals' ability to cope with annual variation in local conditions, but can also increase the potential to re‐distribute and adapt to new breeding environments

    Fermat's principle of least time in the presence of uniformly moving boundaries and media

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    The refraction of a light ray by a homogeneous, isotropic and non-dispersive transparent material half-space in uniform rectilinear motion is investigated theoretically. The approach is an amalgamation of the original Fermat's principle and the fact that an isotropic optical medium at rest becomes optically anisotropic in a frame where the medium is moving at a constant velocity. Two cases of motion are considered: a) the material half-space is moving parallel to the interface; b) the material half-space is moving perpendicular to the interface. In each case, a detailed analysis of the obtained refraction formula is provided, and in the latter case, an intriguing backward refraction of light is noticed and thoroughly discussed. The results confirm the validity of Fermat's principle when the optical media and the boundaries between them are moving at relativistic speeds.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, RevTeX 4, comments welcome; V2: revised, Fig. 7 added; V3: several typos corrected, accepted for publication in European Journal of Physics (online at: http://stacks.iop.org/EJP/28/933

    Hierarchical model for the scale-dependent velocity of seismic waves

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    Elastic waves of short wavelength propagating through the upper layer of the Earth appear to move faster at large separations of source and receiver than at short separations. This scale dependent velocity is a manifestation of Fermat's principle of least time in a medium with random velocity fluctuations. Existing perturbation theories predict a linear increase of the velocity shift with increasing separation, and cannot describe the saturation of the velocity shift at large separations that is seen in computer simulations. Here we show that this long-standing problem in seismology can be solved using a model developed originally in the context of polymer physics. We find that the saturation velocity scales with the four-third power of the root-mean-square amplitude of the velocity fluctuations, in good agreement with the computer simulations.Comment: 7 pages including 3 figure