4,080 research outputs found

    Competition, R&D Activities and Endogenous Growth

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    A prediction of the endogenous growth models with quality ladders is that there exists a negative relation between growth and the degree of market competition. The aim of this article is to shed light on the relation between competition and growth when horizontal and vertical innovations can simultaneously occur by adopting the structure of the patent race model; we show the way in which the toughness of competition influences the firms’ incentives to invest in the two R&D activities; in particular, the presence of vertical and horizontal differentiation can determine a non monotonic long run relationship between competition and growth.Growth; Competition; Vertical and Horizontal Innovations

    Learning by gaming:ANT and critical making

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    Relationships among theory, gaming, learning and socio-technical design are explored in the two contributions which compose the section. The theory in question is ANT, re-interpreted through critical making - an umbrella term for various distinctive practices that link traditional scholarship in the humanities and social sciences to forms of material engagement. Sergio Minniti describes an ongoing project called Game of ANT, which draws upon the critical making approach to design an interactive technology and a workshop experience through which scholars and students can conceptually-materially engage with ANT, hence exploring and approaching it from novel points of view. Game of ANT adopts the Latourian vision of technoscience as war and physically embodies this idea by proposing a sort of war game during which participants play the roles of human or non-human actors engaging with the competitive dynamics of socio-technical life. The commentary by Stefano De Paoli proposes new directions to develop the project, by deepening the concept of game and its value for design and learning processes.</p

    Not for Lack of Trying: American Entrepreneurship in Black and White

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    Using a sample obtained from a survey conducted in the United States during summer 2002, we study the variables related to observed differences in the rate of entrepreneurial involvement between black and white Americans. We find strong evidence that differences in subjective and often biased perceptions are highly associated with entrepreneurial propensity across these two racial groups. In addition, we find that black Americans tend to exhibit more optimistic perceptions of their business environment than other racial groups and are more likely than others to attempt starting a business. In fact, our results show that blacks are almost twice as likely as whites to try starting a business. Thus, our results suggest that the under representation of black Americans among established entrepreneurs is not due to lack of trying but may instead be due to stronger barriers to entry and higher failure rates.Entrepreneurship, Black Entrepreneurship, Minority Entrepreneurship, Nascent Entrepreneurship.
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