80 research outputs found

    Earmarking government revenues : does it work ?

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    Earmarking is the practice of assigning revenues from specific taxes or groups of taxes to specific government activities or to broader areas of government activity. As such, it contrasts with general fund financing where monies are pooled to be used for various government purposes. In practice, earmarking has come into being via statute or via constitutional clauses mandating that certain revenues only be used for specified activities. Governments often circumvent the intentions of earmarking by withholding funds or failing to change prices or taxes or, if need be, simply suspending the earmarking arrangements. One section of this report reviews the Bank's attitude toward earmarking and then summarizes its experience with a number of road funds in developing countries.Environmental Economics&Policies,Public Sector Economics&Finance,Economic Theory&Research,National Governance,Banks&Banking Reform

    Earmarking government revenues in Colombia

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    This paper has two broad objectives. The first is the examination of the trends in the size and structure of earmarking since 1970, illuminating the major changes and their causes. The second is an evaluation of the major examples of earmarking with a view toward making recommendations for change. In making recommendations for reducing the scope of earmarking in Colombia, several principles should be used for guidance: (a) is there a substantial overlap between the beneficiaries and the tax/price payers for any given government service; (b) do the tax/price arrangements appear to be leading to appropriate levels of the service over time; and (c) are resources being utilized effectively for the purpose intended. The remainder of the paper is divided into four parts: (a) time series data on the size and structure of earmarking during the last two decades; (b) factors behind the popularity of earmarking in Colombia and a review of the findings and recommendations of two major government commissions which have examined the subject; (c) a critical review of the major examples which make up over 90% of total earmarking; and (d) a summary of major findings and recommendations for changes.Economic Theory&Research,Public Sector Economics&Finance,Environmental Economics&Policies,National Governance,Banks&Banking Reform

    On the equivariant cohomology of rotation groups and Stiefel manifolds

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    AbstractIn this paper, we compute the RO(Z/2)-graded equivariant cohomology of rotation groups and Stiefel manifolds with particular involutions

    Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Outcomes by Age Among ARCAD First- and Second-Line Clinical Trials

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    Metastatic Colorectal Cancer; OutcomesCáncer colorrectal metastásico; ResultadosCàncer colorrectal metastàtic; ResultatsBackground We evaluated the time to progression (TTP) and survival outcomes of second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer among adults aged 70 years and older compared with younger adults following progression on first-line clinical trials. Methods Associations between clinical and disease characteristics, time to initial progression, and rate of receipt of second-line therapy were evaluated. TTP and overall survival (OS) were compared between older and younger adults in first- and second-line trials by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status, number of metastatic sites and presence of metastasis in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results Older adults comprised 16.4% of patients on first-line trials (870 total older adults aged >70 years; 4419 total younger adults aged ≤70 years, on first-line trials). Older adults and those with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status >0 were less likely to receive second-line therapy than younger adults. Odds of receiving second-line therapy decreased by 11% for each additional decade of life in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.21, P = .01). Older and younger adults enrolled in second-line trials experienced similar median TTP and median OS (median TTP = 5.1 vs 5.2 months, respectively; median OS = 11.6 vs 12.4 months, respectively). Conclusions Older adults were less likely to receive second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, though we did not observe a statistical difference in survival outcomes vs younger adults following second-line therapy. Further study should examine factors affecting decisions to treat older adults with second-line therapy. Inclusion of geriatric assessment may provide better criteria regarding the risks and benefits of second-line therapy.The National Cancer Institute Gastrointestinal Cancer Center Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Career Development Award (5P50CA127003-08) funded Dr McCleary’s effort. The ARCAD Foundation funded data collection and analysis

    Comparative transcriptional profiling of canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and homology with human ameloblastoma

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    Ameloblastomas are odontogenic tumors that are rare in people but have a relatively high prevalence in dogs. Because canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas (CAA) have clinicopathologic and molecular features in common with human ameloblastomas (AM), spontaneous CAA can serve as a useful translational model of disease. However, the molecular basis of CAA and how it compares to AM are incompletely understood. In this study, we compared the global genomic expression profile of CAA with AM and evaluated its dental origin by using a bulk RNA-seq approach. For these studies, healthy gingiva and canine oral squamous cell carcinoma served as controls. We found that aberrant RAS signaling, and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition cellular program are involved in the pathogenesis of CAA, and that CAA is enriched with genes known to be upregulated in AM including those expressed during the early stages of tooth development, suggesting a high level of molecular homology. These results support the model that domestic dogs with spontaneous CAA have potential for pre-clinical assessment of targeted therapeutic modalities against AM

    Continuing medical education challenges in chronic fatigue syndrome

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects at least 4 million people in the United States, yet only 16% of people with CFS have received a diagnosis or medical care for their illness. Educating health care professionals about the diagnosis and management of CFS may help to reduce population morbidity associated with CFS.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This report presents findings over a 5-year period from May 2000 to June 2006 during which we developed and implemented a health care professional educational program. The objective of the program was to distribute CFS continuing education materials to providers at professional conferences, offer online continuing education credits in different formats (e.g., print, video, and online), and evaluate the number of accreditation certificates awarded.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We found that smaller conference size (OR = 80.17; 95% CI 8.80, 730.25), CFS illness related target audiences (OR = 36.0; 95% CI 2.94, 436.34), and conferences in which CFS research was highlighted (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.16, 14.83) significantly contributed to higher dissemination levels, as measured by visit rates to the education booth. While print and online courses were equally requested for continuing education credit opportunities, the online course resulted in 84% of the overall award certificates, compared to 14% for the print course. This remained consistent across all provider occupations: physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These findings suggest that educational programs promoting materials at conferences may increase dissemination efforts by targeting audiences, examining conference characteristics, and promoting online continuing education forums.</p

    A train-the-trainer education and promotion program: chronic fatigue syndrome – a diagnostic and management challenge

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complicated illness for providers and patients. Fewer than 20% of persons with CFS have been diagnosed and treated. For providers, compounding the issue are the challenges in making a diagnosis due to the lack of a biomedical marker.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The objective of the CFS diagnosis and management curriculum was to instruct core trainers as to the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of CFS. Over a two year period, 79 primary care physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners from diverse regions in the U.S. participated as core trainers in a two day Train-the-Trainer (TTT) workshop. As core trainers, the workshop participants were expected to show increases in knowledge, self-efficacy, and management skills with the primary goal of conducting secondary presentations.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The optimal goal for each core trainer to present secondary training to 50 persons in the health care field was not reached. However, the combined core trainer group successfully reached 2064 primary care providers. Eighty-two percent of core trainers responded "Very good" or "Excellent" in a post-tessurvey of self-efficacy expectation and CFS diagnosis. Data from the Chicago workshops showed significant improvement on the Primary Care Opinion Survey (p < 0.01) and on the Relevance and Responsibility Factors of the CAT survey (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Dallas workshop data show a significant change from pre- to post-test scores on the CFS Knowledge test (p = 0.001). Qualitative and process evaluation data revealed that target audience and administrative barriers impacted secondary training feasibility.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Data show the workshop was successful in meeting the objectives of increasing CFS knowledge and raising perceived self-efficacy towards making a diagnosis. The CFS TTT program informed an educational provider project by shifting the format for physicians to grand rounds and continuing medical education design while retaining TTT aspects for nurse practitioners and physicians assistants. Evaluations also indicate that secondary trainings may be more readily employed and accepted if administrative barriers are addressed early in the planning phases.</p

    Lensing in the Blue. II. Estimating the Sensitivity of Stratospheric Balloons to Weak Gravitational Lensing

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    The Superpressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction-limited, wide-field, 0.5 m, near-infrared to near-ultraviolet observatory designed to exploit the stratosphere's space-like conditions. SuperBIT's 2023 science flight will deliver deep, blue imaging of galaxy clusters for gravitational lensing analysis. In preparation, we have developed a weak-lensing measurement pipeline with modern algorithms for PSF characterization, shape measurement, and shear calibration. We validate our pipeline and forecast SuperBIT survey properties with simulated galaxy cluster observations in SuperBIT's near-UV and blue bandpasses. We predict imaging depth, galaxy number (source) density, and redshift distribution for observations in SuperBIT's three bluest filters; the effect of lensing sample selections is also considered. We find that, in three hours of on-sky integration, SuperBIT can attain a depth of b = 26 mag and a total source density exceeding 40 galaxies per square arcminute. Even with the application of lensing-analysis catalog selections, we find b-band source densities between 25 and 30 galaxies per square arcminute with a median redshift of z = 1.1. Our analysis confirms SuperBIT's capability for weak gravitational lensing measurements in the blue

    Lensing in the Blue II: Estimating the Sensitivity of Stratospheric Balloons to Weak Gravitational Lensing

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    The Superpressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT) is a diffraction-limited, wide-field, 0.5 m, near-infrared to near-ultraviolet observatory designed to exploit the stratosphere's space-like conditions. SuperBIT's 2023 science flight will deliver deep, blue imaging of galaxy clusters for gravitational lensing analysis. In preparation, we have developed a weak lensing measurement pipeline with modern algorithms for PSF characterization, shape measurement, and shear calibration. We validate our pipeline and forecast SuperBIT survey properties with simulated galaxy cluster observations in SuperBIT's near-UV and blue bandpasses. We predict imaging depth, galaxy number (source) density, and redshift distribution for observations in SuperBIT's three bluest filters; the effect of lensing sample selections is also considered. We find that in three hours of on-sky integration, SuperBIT can attain a depth of b = 26 mag and a total source density exceeding 40 galaxies per square arcminute. Even with the application of lensing-analysis catalog selections, we find b-band source densities between 25 and 30 galaxies per square arcminute with a median redshift of z = 1.1. Our analysis confirms SuperBIT's capability for weak gravitational lensing measurements in the blue.Comment: Submitted to Astronomical Journa
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