54 research outputs found

    Processing of Beach Sand Minerals of Maharastra Coast

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    In the present paper, an attempt has been to bene-ficiate beach sand minerals of Maharastra coast. For this purpose, beach sand mineral samples were collected from two different coastal places namely; Pirawadi and Kother-wadi area. The samples obtained were subjected for chara-cterization & beneficiation studies. The characterization studies were mainly carried out by mineralogical analyses. The mineralogical analyses indicated 12-15% Ilmenite, 5-7% Magnetite and 65-70% Quartz in Pirawadi sample. Similarly Kotherwadi sample showed the presence of 10-12% Ilmanite along with 40-45% quartz. The studies also indicated the increased heavy mineral concentration in finer size (-75 11) fractions. Further, the beneficiation studies were carried out using Perm roll magnetic separator using different variables such as particle size, magnetic inte-nsity, roll speed, splitter position etc. From the studies it was possible to recover 80-85% magnetic minerals under different conditions

    Curvature-induced stiffening of a fish fin

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    How fish modulate their fin stiffness during locomotive manoeuvres remains unknown. We show that changing the fin's curvature modulates its stiffness. Modelling the fin as bendable bony rays held together by a membrane, we deduce that fin curvature is manifested as a misalignment of the principal bending axes between neighbouring rays. An external force causes neighbouring rays to bend and splay apart, and thus stretches the membrane. This coupling between bending the rays and stretching the membrane underlies the increase in stiffness. Using analysis of a 3D reconstruction of a Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) pectoral fin, we calculate the range of stiffnesses this fin is expected to span by changing curvature. The 3D reconstruction shows that, even in its geometrically flat state, a functional curvature is embedded within the fin microstructure owing to the morphology of individual rays. Since the ability of a propulsive surface to transmit force to the surrounding fluid is limited by its stiffness, the fin curvature controls the coupling between the fish and its surrounding fluid. Thereby, our results provide mechanical underpinnings and morphological predictions for the hypothesis that the spanned range of fin stiffnesses correlates with the behaviour and the ecological niche of the fish

    Recovery of monazite from red sediments of badlands topography of south east coast of India and its characterization for industrial applications

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    1528-1535An attempt has been made in this paper to recover pure monazite, a source for thorium, from the red sediments badlands topography of Kalipalli village of Ganjam district of Odisha, India by developing an industrially viable process flow sheet from a feed sample containing monazite mineral 0.63 % by weight. Results have indicated that monazite purity of 98 % could be achieved with a recovery of 63 % by weight. Recovery of monazite can be enhanced if the spiral concentrate is further scrubbed in alkaline media prior to subjecting to mineral separation studies. In the present investigation an attempt is also made to compare the monazite occurring from red sediment sample with naturally occurring monazite from beach sands. It is found that in spite, their morphological and topographical characteristics are markedly different the monazite occurring from both sources, have chemical elemental similarity. It is also seen that the chemical states of rare earth (RE) elements in monazite of both sources are matching. Further, due to natural occurrence of finer particle size of monazite (< 150 micron) in red sediments sample, the material is found to be suitable for chemical treatment to recover easily the valuable rare earths from it. Hence, it is recommended for mining of red sediments for recovery of monazite from red sediments of badlands topography as an additional resource for beach sand monazite

    Monte-Carlo study of scaling exponents of rough surfaces and correlated percolation

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    We calculate the scaling exponents of the two-dimensional correlated percolation cluster's hull and unscreened perimeter. Correlations are introduced through an underlying correlated random potential, which is used to define the state of bonds of a two-dimensional bond percolation model. Monte-Carlo simulations are run and the values of the scaling exponents are determined as functions of the Hurst exponent H in the range -0.75 <= H <= 1. The results confirm the conjectures of earlier studies

    Wettability-independent bouncing on flat surfaces mediated by thin air films

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    The impingement of drops onto solid surfaces1, 2 plays a crucial role in a variety of processes, including inkjet printing, fog harvesting, anti-icing, dropwise condensation and spray coating3, 4, 5, 6. Recent efforts in understanding and controlling drop impact behaviour focused on superhydrophobic surfaces with specific surface structures enabling drop bouncing with reduced contact time7, 8. Here, we report a different universal bouncing mechanism that occurs on both wetting and non-wetting flat surfaces for both high and low surface tension liquids. Using high-speed multiple-wavelength interferometry9, we show that this bouncing mechanism is based on the continuous presence of an air film for moderate drop impact velocities. This submicrometre ‘air cushion’ slows down the incoming drop and reverses its momentum. Viscous forces in the air film play a key role in this process: they provide transient stability of the air cushion against squeeze-out, mediate momentum transfer, and contribute a substantial part of the energy dissipation during bouncing

    Gas-cushioned droplet impacts with a thin layer of porous media

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    The authors are grateful to Dr. Manish Tiwari for introducing them to experiments involving droplet impacts with textured substrates. PDH is grateful for the use of the Maxwell High-Performance Computing Cluster of the University of Aberdeen IT Service. RP is grateful for the use of the High-Performance Computing Cluster supported by the Research and Specialist Computing Support service at the University of East Anglia.Peer reviewedPostprin

    The branch with the furthest reach

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    How should a given amount of material be moulded into a cantilevered beam clamped at one end, so that it will have the furthest horizontal reach? Here, we formulate and solve this variational problem for the optimal variation of the cross-section area of a heavy cantilevered beam with a given volume V, Young's modulus E, and density ρ, subject to gravity g. We find that the cross-sectional area should vary according a universal profile that is independent of material parameters, with both the length and maximum reach-out distance of the branch that scale as (EV/ρg)1/4, with a universal self-similar shape at the tip with the area of cross-section a∼s3, s being the distance from the tip, consistent with earlier observations of tree branches, but with a different local interpretation than given before. A simple experimental realization of our optimal beam shows that our result compares favorably with that of our observations. Our results for the optimal design of slender structures with the longest reach are valid for cross-sections of arbitrary shape that can be solid or hollow and thus relevant for a range of natural and engineered systems