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    Repeatable classical one-time-pad crypto-system with quantum mechanics

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    Classical one-time-pad key can only be used once. We show in this Letter that with quantum mechanical information media classical one-time-pad key can be repeatedly used. We propose a specific realization using single photons. The reason why quantum mechanics can make the classical one-time-pad key repeatable is that quantum states can not be cloned and eavesdropping can be detected by the legitimate users. This represents a significant difference between classical cryptography and quantum cryptography and provides a new tool in designing quantum communication protocols and flexibility in practical applications. Note added: This work was submitted to PRL as LU9745 on 29 July 2004, and the decision was returned on 11 November 2004, which advised us to resubmit to some specialized journal, probably, PRA, after revision. We publish it here in memory of Prof. Fu-Guo Deng (1975.11.12-2019.1.18), from Beijing Normal University, who died on Jan 18, 2019 after two years heroic fight with pancreatic cancer. In this work, we designed a protocol to repeatedly use a classical one-time-pad key to transmit ciphertext using single photon states. The essential idea was proposed in November 1982, by Charles H. Bennett, Gilles Brassard, Seth Breidbart, which was rejected by Fifteenth Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, and remained unpublished until 2014, when they published the article, Quantum Cryptography II: How to re-use a one-time pad safely even if P=NP, Natural Computing (2014) 13:453-458, DOI 10.1007/s11047-014-9453-6. We worked out this idea independently. This work has not been published, and was in cooperated into quant-ph 706.3791 (Kai Wen, Fu Guo Deng, Gui Lu Long, Secure Reusable Base-String in Quantum Key Distribution), and quant-ph 0711.1642 (Kai Wen, Fu-Guo Deng, Gui Lu Long, Reusable Vernam Cipher with Quantum Media).Comment: It was submitted to PRL in 2004. We designed a protocol to use repeatedly a one-time-pad to transmit ciphertext using single photons. The idea was proposed by Bennett, Brassard, Breidbart in 1982. Unknowing their work, we rediscovered this idea independently. We publish it here in memory of Prof. Fu-Guo Deng (1975.11.12-2019.1.18), who died after two years heroic fight with pancreatic cance