365 research outputs found

    Archeota, Spring 2016

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    https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/saasc_archeota/1002/thumbnail.jp

    Learning Outcomes of Hybrid In-Person and At-Home Orthosis Fabrication Instruction for Occupational Therapy Students

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    Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy students at one university received all orthosis fabrication education through an in-person laboratory-based environment supported by clinicians and instructional videos. Due to the pandemic restrictions, orthosis fabrication labs for occupational therapy students were transitioned to a hybrid in-person and at-home supported lab. Presently, there is no research investigating how a hybrid in-person orthosis lab and at-home orthosis fabrication experience impacts the professional practice skill development of occupational therapy students entering the workforce. This research examined the learning outcomes of participation in a hybrid orthosis fabrication experience consisting of one in-person laboratory-based experience and one at-home supported experience (instructional videos, written instructions, without instructor supervision). The research also explored the implications of this hybrid learning experience for future curriculum development. This qualitative study included two components: (1) Interviews with six occupational therapy graduates; (2) 26 student reflections following the hybrid learning experience. The results of this study highlighted three overarching themes: orthosis skill development; transferable skills development; future considerations for implementing a hybrid learning method. A hybrid learning approach provided unique opportunities for the scaling of independence and productive struggle to develop student competence in orthosis fabrication. This research provided insights for occupational therapy curriculum developers to modify educational approaches and effectively support students as they develop into competent occupational therapists

    Analysis of Nkx3.1:Cre-driven Erk5 deletion reveals a profound spinal deformity which is linked to increased osteoclast activity

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    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) has been implicated during development and carcinogenesis. Nkx3.1-mediated Cre expression is a useful strategy to genetically manipulate the mouse prostate. While grossly normal at birth, we observed an unexpected phenotype of spinal protrusion in Nkx3.1:Cre;Erk5fl/fl (Erk5fl/fl) mice by ~6–8 weeks of age. X-ray, histological and micro CT (µCT) analyses showed that 100% of male and female Erk5fl/fl mice had a severely deformed curved thoracic spine, with an associated loss of trabecular bone volume. Although sex-specific differences were observed, histomorphometry measurements revealed that both bone resorption and bone formation parameters were increased in male Erk5fl/fl mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Osteopenia occurs where the rate of bone resorption exceeds that of bone formation, so we investigated the role of the osteoclast compartment. We found that treatment of RANKL-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) cultures with small molecule ERK5 pathway inhibitors increased osteoclast numbers. Furthermore, osteoclast numbers and expression of osteoclast marker genes were increased in parallel with reduced Erk5 expression in cultures generated from Erk5fl/fl mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results reveal a novel role for Erk5 during bone maturation and homeostasis in vivo

    Mitochondria as a Target of Environmental Toxicants

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    Enormous strides have recently been made in our understanding of the biology and pathobiology of mitochondria. Many diseases have been identified as caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and many pharmaceuticals have been identified as previously unrecognized mitochondrial toxicants. A much smaller but growing literature indicates that mitochondria are also targeted by environmental pollutants. We briefly review the importance of mitochondrial function and maintenance for health based on the genetics of mitochondrial diseases and the toxicities resulting from pharmaceutical exposure. We then discuss how the principles of mitochondrial vulnerability illustrated by those fields might apply to environmental contaminants, with particular attention to factors that may modulate vulnerability including genetic differences, epigenetic interactions, tissue characteristics, and developmental stage. Finally, we review the literature related to environmental mitochondrial toxicants, with a particular focus on those toxicants that target mitochondrial DNA. We conclude that the fields of environmental toxicology and environmental health should focus more strongly on mitochondri

    Factors related to medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes towards older patients: A systematic review

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    Background:Studies have sought to identify the possible determinants of medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes towards older patients by examining relationships with a variety of factors: demographic; educational/training; exposure to older people; personality/cognitive; and job/career factors. This review collates and synthesises these findings. Methods: An electronic search of ten databases was performed (ABI/Inform, ASSIA, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, Informa Health, Medline, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science) through to 7 February 2017. Results: The main search identified 2332 articles; 37 studies met the eligibility criteria set. All included studies analysed self-reported attitudes based on correlational analyses or difference testing, therefore causation could not be determined. However, self-reported positive attitudes towards older patients were related to: (i) intrinsic motivation for studying medicine; (ii) increased preference for working with older patients; and (iii) good previous relationships with older people. Additionally, more positive attitudes were also reported in those with higher knowledge scores but these may relate to the use of a knowledge assessment which is an indirect measure of attitudes (i.e. Palmore’s Facts on Aging Quizzes). Four out of the five high quality studies included in this review reported more positive attitudes in females compared to males. Conclusion:This paper identifies factors associated with medical students’ and doctors’ positive attitudes towards older patients. Future research could bring greater clarity to the relationship between knowledge and attitudes by using a knowledge measure which is distinct from attitudes and also measures knowledge that is relevant to clinical care

    Assessing alternate sparger configurations to mitigate supply chain risks in single-use bioreactors

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    Consumable shortages throughout the pandemic introduced unanticipated challenges for continued manufacture of commercial biologics. With single-use systems, the bioreactors themselves are consumables that were impacted by these supply chain shortages. To ensure patient supply of necessary biologics, risk mitigation planning and determining suitable alternatives was required. In this presentation, we detail work performed to allow for continued manufacturing, while facing stock-out risks for single-use bioreactor bags used at both the seed and production stages. Specifically, this work focused on alternate sparger configurations, as the standard configuration used in the production bioreactor stage was unavailable. Additional options for added flexibility at the seed bioreactor stages were evaluated to address stock-out risks, and are discussed. Please click Additional Files below to see the full abstract

    Cluster Analysis of Obesity and Asthma Phenotypes

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    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with variability among patients in characteristics such as lung function, symptoms and control, body weight, markers of inflammation, and responsiveness to glucocorticoids (GC). Cluster analysis of well-characterized cohorts can advance understanding of disease subgroups in asthma and point to unsuspected disease mechanisms. We utilized an hypothesis-free cluster analytical approach to define the contribution of obesity and related variables to asthma phenotype.In a cohort of clinical trial participants (n = 250), minimum-variance hierarchical clustering was used to identify clinical and inflammatory biomarkers important in determining disease cluster membership in mild and moderate persistent asthmatics. In a subset of participants, GC sensitivity was assessed via expression of GC receptor alpha (GCRα) and induction of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression by dexamethasone. Four asthma clusters were identified, with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and severity of asthma symptoms (AEQ score) the most significant determinants of cluster membership (F = 57.1, p<0.0001 and F = 44.8, p<0.0001, respectively). Two clusters were composed of predominantly obese individuals; these two obese asthma clusters differed from one another with regard to age of asthma onset, measures of asthma symptoms (AEQ) and control (ACQ), exhaled nitric oxide concentration (F(E)NO) and airway hyperresponsiveness (methacholine PC(20)) but were similar with regard to measures of lung function (FEV(1) (%) and FEV(1)/FVC), airway eosinophilia, IgE, leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Members of obese clusters demonstrated evidence of reduced expression of GCRα, a finding which was correlated with a reduced induction of MKP-1 expression by dexamethasoneObesity is an important determinant of asthma phenotype in adults. There is heterogeneity in expression of clinical and inflammatory biomarkers of asthma across obese individuals. Reduced expression of the dominant functional isoform of the GCR may mediate GC insensitivity in obese asthmatics
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