99 research outputs found

    Dynamics of Porous Dust Aggregates and Gravitational Instability of Their Disk

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    We consider the dynamics of porous icy dust aggregates in a turbulent gas disk and investigate the stability of the disk. We evaluate the random velocity of porous dust aggregates by considering their self-gravity, collisions, aerodynamic drag, turbulent stirring and scattering due to gas. We extend our previous work by introducing the anisotropic velocity dispersion and the relaxation time of the random velocity. We find the minimum mass solar nebular model to be gravitationally unstable if the turbulent viscosity parameter Ξ±\alpha is less than about 4Γ—10βˆ’34 \times 10^{-3}. The upper limit of Ξ±\alpha for the onset of gravitational instability is derived as a function of the disk parameters. We discuss the implications of the gravitational instability for planetesimal formation.Comment: 38 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Formation of Close-in Super-Earths by Giant Impacts: Effects of Initial Eccentricities and Inclinations of Protoplanets

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    Recent observations have revealed the eccentricity and inclination distributions of close-in super-Earths. These distributions have the potential to constrain their formation processes. In the in-situ formation scenario, the eccentricities and inclinations of planets are determined by gravitational scattering and collisions between protoplanets on the giant impact stage. We investigate the effect of the initial eccentricities and inclinations of protoplanets on the formation of close-in super-Earths. We perform NN-body simulations of protoplanets in gas-free disks, changing the initial eccentricities and inclinations systematically. We find that while the eccentricities of protoplanets are well relaxed through their evolution, the inclinations are not. When the initial inclinations are small, they are not generally pumped up since scattering is less effective and collisions occur immediately after orbital crossing. On the other hand, when the initial inclinations are large, they tend to be kept large since collisional damping is less effective. Not only the resultant inclinations of planets, but also their number, eccentricities, angular momentum deficit, and orbital separations are affected by the initial inclinations of protoplanets.Comment: Accepted for publication in A

    Pitch Angle of Galactic Spiral Arms

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    One of the key parameters that characterize spiral arms in disk galaxies is a pitch angle that measures the inclination of a spiral arm to the direction of galactic rotation. The pitch angle differs from galaxy to galaxy, which suggests that the rotation law of galactic disks determines it. In order to investigate the relation between the pitch angle of spiral arms and the shear rate of galactic differential rotation, we perform local NN-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We find that the pitch angle increases with the epicycle frequency and decreases with the shear rate and obtain the fitting formula. This dependence is explained by the swing amplification mechanism.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Dynamics and Accretion of Planetesimals

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    We review the basic dynamics and accretion of planetesimals by showing N-body simulations. The orbits of planetesimals evolve through two-body gravitational relaxation: viscous stirring increases the random velocity and dynamical friction realizes the equiparation of the random energy. In the early stage of planetesimal accretion the growth mode of planetesimals is runaway growth where larger planetesimals grow faster than smaller ones. When a protoplanet (runaway-growing planetesimal) exceeds a critical mass the growth mode shifts to oligarchic growth where similar-sized protoplanets grow keeping a certain orbital separation. The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is collision among protoplanets known as giant impacts. We also summarize the dynamical effects of disk gas on planets and the core accretion model for formation of gas giants and discuss the diversity of planetary systems

    Effect of Stellar Encounters on Comet Cloud Formation

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    We have investigated the effect of stellar encounters on the formation and disruption of the Oort cloud using the classical impulse approximation. We calculate the evolution of a planetesimal disk into a spherical Oort cloud due to the perturbation from passing stars for 10 Gyr. We obtain the empirical fits of the ee-folding time for the number of Oort cloud comets using the standard exponential and Kohlrausch formulae as functions of the stellar parameters and the initial semimajor axes of planetesimals. The ee-folding time and the evolution timescales of the orbital elements are also analytically derived. In some calculations, the effect of the Galactic tide is additionally considered. We also show the radial variations of the ee-folding times to the Oort cloud. From these timescales, we show that if the initial planetesimal disk has the semimajor axes distribution dn/da∝aβˆ’2{\rm d}n/{\rm d}a\propto a^{-2}, which is produced by planetary scattering (Higuchi et al. 2006), the ee-folding time for planetesimals in the Oort cloud is ∼\sim10 Gyr at any heliocentric distance rr. This uniform ee-folding time over the Oort cloud means that the supply of comets from the inner Oort cloud to the outer Oort cloud is sufficiently effective to keep the comet distribution as dn/dr∝rβˆ’2{\rm d}n/{\rm d}r\propto r^{-2}. We also show that the final distribution of the semimajor axes in the Oort cloud is approximately proportional to aβˆ’2a^{-2} for any initial distribution.Comment: Accepted for publication in AJ, 15 figures, 3 table

    Planetesimal Formation by Gravitational Instability of a Porous-Dust Disk

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    Recently it is proposed that porous icy dust aggregates are formed by pairwise accretion of dust aggregates beyond the snowline. We calculate the equilibrium random velocity of porous dust aggregates taking into account mutual gravitational scattering, collisions, gas drag, and turbulent stirring and scattering. We find that the disk of porous dust aggregates becomes gravitationally unstable as they evolve through gravitational compression in the minimum-mass solar nebula model for a reasonable range of turbulence strength, which leads to rapid formation of planetesimals.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Global N-Body Simulation of Galactic Spiral Arms

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    The origin of galactic spiral arms is one of fundamental problems in astrophysics. Based on the local analysis Toomre (1981) proposed the swing amplification mechanism in which the self-gravity forms spiral arms as leading waves of stars rotate to trailing ones due to galactic shear. The structure of spiral arms is characterized by their number and pitch angle. We perform global NN-body simulations of spiral galaxies to investigate the dependence of the spiral structure on disk parameters and compare the simulation results with the swing amplification model. We find that the spiral structure in the NN-body simulations agrees well with that predicted by the swing amplification for the wide range of parameters. The pitch angle decreases with increasing the shear rate and is independent of the disk mass fraction. The number of spiral arms decreases with both increasing the shear rate and the disk mass fraction. If the disk mass fraction is fixed, the pitch angle increases with the number of spiral arms.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Swing Amplification of Galactic Spiral Arms: Phase Synchronization of Stellar Epicycle Motion

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    We revisit the swing amplification model of galactic spiral arms proposed by Toomre (1981). We describe the derivation of the perturbation equation in detail and investigate the amplification process of stellar spirals. We find that the elementary process of the swing amplification is the phase synchronization of the stellar epicycle motion. Regardless of the initial epicycle phase, the epicycle phases of stars in a spiral are synchronized during the amplification. Based on the phase synchronization, we explain the dependence of the pitch angle of spirals on the epicycle frequency. We find the most amplified spiral mode and calculate its pitch angle, wavelengths, and amplification factor, which are consistent with those obtained by the more rigorous model based on the Boltzmann equation by Julian and Toomre (1966).Comment: 31 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Galactic Spiral Arms by Swing Amplification

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    Based on the swing amplification model of Julian and Toomre (1966), we investigate the formation and structure of stellar spirals in disk galaxies. We calculate the pitch angle, wavelengths, and amplification factor of the most amplified mode. We also obtain the fitting formulae of these quantities as a function of the epicycle frequency and Toomre's QQ. As the epicycle frequency increases, the pitch angle and radial wavelength increases, while the azimuthal wavelength decreases. The pitch angle and radial wavelength increases with QQ, while the azimuthal wavelength weakly depends on QQ. The amplification factor decreases with QQ rapidly. In order to confirm the swing amplification model, we perform local NN-body simulations. The wavelengths and pitch angle by the swing amplification model are in good agreement with those by NN-body simulations. The dependence of the amplification factor on the epicycle frequency in NN-body simulations is generally consistent with that in the swing amplification model. Using these results, we estimate the number of spiral arms as a function of the shear rate. The number of spiral arms increases with the shear rate if the disk to halo mass ratio is fixed.Comment: 23 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    Gravitational instability of a dust layer composed of porous silicate dust aggregates in a protoplanetary disk

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    Planetesimal formation is one of the most important unsolved problems in planet formation theory. In particular, rocky planetesimal formation is difficult because silicate dust grains are easily broken when they collide. Recently, it has been proposed that they can grow as porous aggregates when their monomer radius is smaller than ∼\sim 10 nm, which can also avoid the radial drift toward the central star. However, the stability of a layer composed of such porous silicate dust aggregates has not been investigated. Therefore, we investigate the gravitational instability of this dust layer. To evaluate the disk stability, we calculate Toomre's stability parameter QQ, for which we need to evaluate the equilibrium random velocity of dust aggregates. We calculate the equilibrium random velocity considering gravitational scattering and collisions between dust aggregates, drag by mean flow of gas, stirring by gas turbulence, and gravitational scattering by gas density fluctuation due to turbulence. We derive the condition of the gravitational instability using the disk mass, dust-to-gas ratio, turbulent strength, orbital radius, and dust monomer radius. We find that, for the minimum mass solar nebula model at 1 au, the dust layer becomes gravitationally unstable when the turbulent strength α≲10βˆ’5\alpha\lesssim10^{-5}. If the dust-to-gas ratio is increased twice, the gravitational instability occurs for α≲10βˆ’4\alpha\lesssim10^{-4}. We also find that the dust layer is more unstable in disks with larger mass, higher dust-to-gas ratio, and weaker turbulent strength, at larger orbital radius, and with a larger monomer radius.Comment: 17 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Ap
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