2,478 research outputs found

    Equilibrium magnetisation structures in ferromagnetic nanorings

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    The ground state of the ring-shape magnetic nanoparticle is studied. Depending on the geometrical and magnetic parameters of the nanoring, there exist different magnetisation configurations (magnetic phases): two phases with homogeneous magnetisation (easy-axis and easy-plane phases) and two inhomogeneous (planar vortex phase and out-of-plane one). The existence of a new intermediate out-of-plane vortex phase, where the inner magnetisation is not strongly parallel to the easy axis, is predicted. Possible transitions between different phases are analysed using the combination of analytical calculations and micromagnetic simulations.Comment: LaTeX, 19 pages, 11 figure

    ASCA Observation of the Low-Luminosity Seyfert 1.5 Galaxy NGC 5033

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    We present the results of an ASCA observation of the low-luminosity Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5033. A point-like X-ray source with a luminosity of 2.3x10^{41} erg s^{-1} in the 2--10 keV band (at 18.7 Mpc; Tully 1988, AAA045.002.054) was detected at the nucleus. The X-ray light curve shows variability on a timescale of ~10^4 s with an amplitude of ~20%. The X-ray continuum is represented by a weakly absorbed (N_H~9x10^{20} {cm^{-2}) power-law with a photon index of 1.72+/-0.04, which is quite similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies with higher luminosities. A Fe Kalpha emission line is detected at 6.40^{+0.08}_{-0.06} keV (redshift corrected) and the equivalent width is 290+/-100 eV. The line width is unresolved. The narrower line width and larger equivalent width compared to Seyfert 1s imply that fluorescent Fe Kalpha emission from matter further out from the center than the accretion disk significantly contributes to the observed Fe Kalpha line. We suggest that fluorescent Fe Kalpha emission from the putative torus contributes to the observed Fe Kalpha line.Comment: 17 pages, To appear in PASJ, Vol. 51, No.

    Quantum and Classical Gauge Symmetries in a Modified Quantization Scheme

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    The use of the mass term as a gauge fixing term has been studied by Zwanziger, Parrinello and Jona-Lasinio, which is related to the non-linear gauge Aμ2=λA_{\mu}^{2}=\lambda of Dirac and Nambu in the large mass limit. We have recently shown that this modified quantization scheme is in fact identical to the conventional {\em local} Faddeev-Popov formula {\em without} taking the large mass limit, if one takes into account the variation of the gauge field along the entire gauge orbit and if the Gribov complications can be ignored. This suggests that the classical massive vector theory, for example, is interpreted in a more flexible manner either as a gauge invariant theory with a gauge fixing term added, or as a conventional massive non-gauge theory. As for massive gauge particles, the Higgs mechanics, where the mass term is gauge invariant, has a more intrinsic meaning. It is suggested to extend the notion of quantum gauge symmetry (BRST symmetry) not only to classical gauge theory but also to a wider class of theories whose gauge symmetry is broken by some extra terms in the classical action. We comment on the implications of this extended notion of quantum gauge symmetry.Comment: 14 pages. Substantially revised and enlarged including the change of the title. To appear in International Journal of Modern Physics

    Direct Observation of Non-Monotonic dx2-y2-Wave Superconducting Gap in Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductor Pr0.89LaCe0.11CuO4

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    We performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on electron-doped high-Tc superconductor Pr0.89LaCe0.11CuO4 to study the anisotropy of the superconducting gap. The observed momentum dependence is basically consistent with the dx2-y2-wave symmetry, but obviously deviates from the monotonic dx2-y2 gap function. The maximum gap is observed not at the zone boundary, but at the hot spot where the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation strongly couples to the electrons on the Fermi surface. The present experimental results unambiguously indicate the spin-mediated pairing mechanism in electron-doped high-Tc superconductors.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Chandra Snapshot Observations of Low-Luminosity AGNs with a Compact Radio Source

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    The results of Chandra snapshot observations of 11 LINERs (Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Regions), three low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies, and one HII-LINER transition object are presented. Our sample consists of all the objects with a flat or inverted spectrum compact radio core in the VLA survey of 48 low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) by Nagar et al. (2000). An X-ray nucleus is detected in all galaxies except one and their X-ray luminosities are in the range 5x10^38 to 8x10^41 erg/s. The X-ray spectra are generally steeper than expected from thermal bremsstrahlung emission from an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The X-ray to Halpha luminosity ratios for 11 out of 14 objects are in good agreement with the value characteristic of LLAGNs and more luminous AGNs, and indicate that their optical emission lines are predominantly powered by a LLAGN. For three objects, this ratio is less than expected. Comparing with properties in other wavelengths, we find that these three galaxies are most likely to be heavily obscured AGN. We use the ratio RX = \nu L\nu (5 GHz)/LX, where LX is the luminosity in the 2-10 keV band, as a measure of radio loudness. In contrast to the usual definition of radio loudness (RO = L\nu(5 GHz)/L\nu(B)), RX can be used for heavily obscured (NH >~ 10^23 cm^-2, AV>50 mag) nuclei. Further, with the high spatial resolution of Chandra, the nuclear X-ray emission of LLAGNs is often easier to measure than the nuclear optical emission. We investigate the values of RX for LLAGNs, luminous Seyfert galaxies, quasars and radio galaxies and confirm the suggestion that a large fraction of LLAGNs are radio loud.Comment: 15 pages, accepted for publication in Ap

    Stringy Derivation of Nahm Construction of Monopoles

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    We derive the Nahm construction of monopoles from exact tachyon condensation on unstable D-branes. The Dirac operator used in the Nahm construction is identified with the tachyon profile in our D-brane approach, and we provide physical interpretation of the procedures Nahm gave. Crucial is the introduction of infinite number of brane-antibranes from which arbitrary D-brane can be constrcuted, exhibitting a unified view of various D-branes. We explicitly show the equivalence of the D3-brane boundary state with the monopole profile and the D1-brane boundary state with the Nahm data as transverse scalars.Comment: 18 pages, 4 eps figures, JHEP style, comments about low energy limits added, references adde

    Detection of an X-ray periodicity in the Seyfert galaxy IRAS18325-5926

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    We report the detection of a 58 ks (16 hr) periodicity in the 0.5-10 keV X-ray light curve of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS18325-5926 (Fairall49), obtained from a 5-day ASCA observation. Nearly 9 cycles of the periodic variation are seen; it shows no strong energy dependence and has an amplitude of about 15 per cent. Unlike most other well-studied Seyfert galaxies, there is no evidence for strong power-law red noise in the X-ray power spectrum of IRAS18325-5926. Scaling from the QPOs found in Galactic black hole candidates suggests that the mass of the black hole in IRAS18325-5926 is (6-40) million solar masses.Comment: 5 pages, 4 Postscript figures, to be published in MNRA

    Ghost D-brane, Supersymmetry and Matrix Model

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    In this note we study the world volume theory of pairs of D-brane and ghost D-brane, which is shown to have 16 linear supersymmetries and 16 nonlinear supersymmetries. In particular we study a matrix model based on the pairs of D(-1)-brane and ghost D(-1)-brane. Since such pairs are supposed to be equivalent to the closed string vacuum, we expect all 32 supersymmetries should be unbroken. We show that the world volume theory of the pairs of D-brane and ghost D-brane has unbroken 32 supersymmetries even though a half of them are nonlinearly realized.Comment: 12 pages, references adde
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