890 research outputs found

    Diffusion of Ultra High Energy Protons in Galaxy Clusters and Secondary X and Gamma Ray Emissions

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    In this work we simulate the propagation of Ultra High Energy (UHE) protons in the magnetised intergalactic medium of Galaxy Clusters (GCs). Differently from previous works on the subject, we trace proton trajectories in configurations of the Intra Cluster Magnetic Field (ICMF) which have been extracted from a constrained Magnetic-SPH simulation of the local universe. Such an approach allows us to take into account the effects of several features of the ICMFs, e.g. irregular geometrical structure and field fluctuations due to merger shocks,which cannot be investigated analitically or with usual numerical simulations. Furthermore, we are able to simulate a set of clusters which have properties quite similar to those of GCs observed in the nearby universe. We estimate the time that UHE protons take to get out of the clusters and found that in the energy range 5\times 10^{18} \simleq E \simleq 3 \times 10^{19} \eV proton propagation takes place in the Bohm scattering diffusion regime passing smoothly to a small pitch angle diffusion regime at larger energies. We apply our results to estimate the secondary gamma and Hard X Ray (HXR) emissions produced by UHE protons in a rich GC. We show that the main emission channel is due to the synchrotron HXR radiation of secondary electrons originated by proton photo-pair production scattering onto the CMB. This process may give rise to a detectable signal if a relatively powerful AGN, or a dead quasar, accelerating protons at UHEs is harboured by a rich GC in the local universe.Comment: 27 pages, 13 figure

    Cosmic rays and Radio Halos in galaxy clusters : new constraints from radio observations

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    Clusters of galaxies are sites of acceleration of charged particles and sources of non-thermal radiation. We report on new constraints on the population of cosmic rays in the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) obtained via radio observations of a fairly large sample of massive, X-ray luminous, galaxy clusters in the redshift interval 0.2--0.4. The bulk of the observed galaxy clusters does not show any hint of Mpc scale synchrotron radio emission at the cluster center (Radio Halo). We obtained solid upper limits to the diffuse radio emission and discuss their implications for the models for the origin of Radio Halos. Our measurements allow us to derive also a limit to the content of cosmic ray protons in the ICM. Assuming spectral indices of these protons delta =2.1-2.4 and microG level magnetic fields, as from Rotation Measures, these limits are one order of magnitude deeper than present EGRET upper limits, while they are less stringent for steeper spectra and lower magnetic fields.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, ApJ Letter, accepte

    Numerical simulations of the possible origin of the two sub-parsec scale and counter-rotating stellar disks around SgrA*

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    We present a high resolution simulation of an idealized model to explain the origin of the two young, counter-rotating, sub-parsec scale stellar disks around the supermassive black hole SgrA* at the Center of the Milky Way. In our model, the collision of a single molecular cloud with a circum-nuclear gas disk (similar to the one observed presently) leads to multiple streams of gas flowing towards the black hole and creating accretion disks with angular momentum depending on the ratio of cloud and circum-nuclear disk material. The infalling gas creates two inclined, counter-rotating sub-parsec scale accretion disks around the supermassive black hole with the first disk forming roughly 1 Myr earlier, allowing it to fragment into stars and get dispersed before the second, counter-rotating disk forms. Fragmentation of the second disk would lead to the two inclined, counter-rotating stellar disks which are observed at the Galactic Center. A similar event might be happening again right now at the Milky Way Galactic Center. Our model predicts that the collision event generates spiral-like filaments of gas, feeding the Galactic Center prior to disk formation with a geometry and inflow pattern that is in agreement with the structure of the so called mini-spiral that has been detected in the Galactic Center.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures, submitted to Ap

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich profiles and scaling relations: modelling effects and observational biases

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    We use high-resolution hydrodynamic re-simulations to investigate the properties of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters. We compare results obtained using different physical models for the intracluster medium (ICM), and show how they modify the SZ emission in terms of cluster profiles and scaling relations. We also produce realistic mock observations to verify whether the results from hydrodynamic simulations can be confirmed. We find that SZ profiles depend marginally on the modelled physical processes, while they exhibit a strong dependence on cluster mass. The central and total SZ emission strongly correlate with the cluster X-ray luminosity and temperature. The logarithmic slopes of these scaling relations differ from the self-similar predictions by less than 0.2; the normalization of the relations is lower for simulations including radiative cooling. The observational test suggests that SZ cluster profiles are unlikely to be able to probe the ICM physics. The total SZ decrement appears to be an observable much more robust than the central intensity, and we suggest using the former to investigate scaling relations.Comment: 13 pages, 12 figures, accepted by MNRA

    Constrained Simulations of the Magnetic Field in the Local Supercluster and the Propagation of UHECR

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    Magnetic fields (MF) in the Local Supercluster (LSC) of galaxies may have profound consequences for the propagation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). Faraday rotations measurements provide some informations about MF in compact clusters. However, very few is known about less dense regions and about the global structure of MF in the LSC. In order to get a better knowledge of these fields we are performing constrained magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the LSC magnetic field. We will present the results of our simulation and discuss their implications for the angular distribution of expected UHECR deflections.Comment: 4 pages + 1 figure. Published on the Proceedings of the 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Tsukuba, Japan (2003

    The complex galaxy cluster Abell 514: New results obtained with the XMM - Newton satellite

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    We study the X-ray morphology and dynamics of the galaxy cluster Abell 514. Also, the relation between the X-ray properties and Faraday Rotation measures of this cluster are investigated in order to study the connection of magnetic fields and the intra-cluster medium. We use two combined XMM - Newton pointings that are split into three distinct observations. The data allow us to evaluate the overall cluster properties like temperature and metallicity with high accuracy. Additionally, a temperature map and the metallicity distribution are computed, which are used to study the dynamical state of the cluster in detail. Abell 514 represents an interesting merger cluster with many substructures visible in the X-ray image and in the temperature and abundance distributions. The new XMM - Newton data of Abell 514 confirm the relation between the X-ray brightness and the sigma of the Rotation Measure (S_X - sigma_RM relation) proposed by Dolag et al. (2001).Comment: 9 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The baryon fraction in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters

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    We study the baryon mass fraction in a set of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters performed using the Tree+SPH code GADGET-2. We investigate the dependence of the baryon fraction upon the radiative cooling, star formation, feedback through galactic winds, conduction and redshift. Both the cold stellar component and the hot X-ray emitting gas have narrow distributions that, at large cluster-centric distances r>R500, are nearly independent of the physics included in the simulations. Only the non-radiative runs reproduce the gas fraction inferred from observations of the inner regions (r ~ R2500) of massive clusters. When cooling is turned on, the excess star formation is mitigated by the action of galactic winds, but yet not by the amount required by observational data. The baryon fraction within a fixed overdensity increases slightly with redshift, independent of the physical processes involved in the accumulation of baryons in the cluster potential well. In runs with cooling and feedback, the increase in baryons is associated with a larger stellar mass fraction that arises at high redshift as a consequence of more efficient gas cooling. For the same reason, the gas fraction appears less concentrated at higher redshift. We discuss the possible cosmological implications of our results and find that two assumptions generally adopted, (1) mean value of Yb = fb / (Omega_b/Omega_m) not evolving with redshift, and (2) a fixed ratio between f_star and f_gas independent of radius and redshift, might not be valid. In the estimate of the cosmic matter density parameter, this implies some systematic effects of the order of Delta Omega_m/Omega_m < +0.15 for non-radiative runs and Delta Omega_m/Omega_m ~ +0.05 and < -0.05 for radiative simulations.Comment: 10 pages, to appear in MNRA

    Cluster Magnetic Fields from Galactic Outflows

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    We performed cosmological, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters, exploring the possibility that the origin of the magnetic seed fields are galactic outflows during the star-burst phase of galactic evolution. To do this we coupled a semi-analytical model for magnetized galactic winds as suggested by \citet{2006MNRAS.370..319B} to our cosmological simulation. We find that the strength and structure of magnetic fields observed in galaxy clusters are well reproduced for a wide range of model parameters for the magnetized, galactic winds and do only weakly depend on the exact magnetic structure within the assumed galactic outflows. Although the evolution of a primordial magnetic seed field shows no significant differences to that of galaxy clusters fields from previous studies, we find that the magnetic field pollution in the diffuse medium within filaments is below the level predicted by scenarios with pure primordial magnetic seed field. We therefore conclude that magnetized galactic outflows and their subsequent evolution within the intra-cluster medium can fully account for the observed magnetic fields in galaxy clusters. Our findings also suggest that measuring cosmological magnetic fields in low-density environments such as filaments is much more useful than observing cluster magnetic fields to infer their possible origin.Comment: Minor revision for publication in MNRA

    Method to Look for Imprints of Ultrahigh Energy Nuclei Sources

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    We propose a new method to search for heavy nuclei sources, on top of background, in the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray data. We apply this method to the 69 events recently published by the Pierre Auger Collaboration and find a tail of events for which it reconstructs the source at a few degrees from the Virgo galaxy cluster. The reconstructed source is located at ~ 8.5 degrees from M87. The probability to have such a cluster of events in some random background and reconstruct the source position in any direction of the sky is about 7 x 10^(-3). The probability to reconstruct the source at less than 10 degrees from M87 in a data set already containing such a cluster of events is about 4 x 10^(-3). This may be a hint at the Virgo cluster as a bright ultra-high energy nuclei source. We investigate the ability of current and future experiments to validate or rule out this possibility, and discuss several alternative solutions which could explain the existing anisotropy in the Auger data.Comment: 12 pages (2 columns), 10 figures. Published in Physical Review
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