663 research outputs found

    Generalized Gravi-Electromagnetism

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    A self consistant and manifestly covariant theory for the dynamics of four charges (masses) (namely electric, magnetic, gravitational, Heavisidian) has been developed in simple, compact and consistent manner. Starting with an invariant Lagrangian density and its quaternionic representation, we have obtained the consistent field equation for the dynamics of four charges. It has been shown that the present reformulation reproduces the dynamics of individual charges (masses) in the absence of other charge (masses) as well as the generalized theory of dyons (gravito - dyons) in the absence gravito - dyons (dyons). key words: dyons, gravito - dyons, quaternion PACS NO: 14.80H

    Kirchhoff's Loop Law and the maximum entropy production principle

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    In contrast to the standard derivation of Kirchhoff's loop law, which invokes electric potential, we show, for the linear planar electric network in a stationary state at the fixed temperature,that loop law can be derived from the maximum entropy production principle. This means that the currents in network branches are distributed in such a way as to achieve the state of maximum entropy production.Comment: revtex4, 5 pages, 2 figure

    Self-Similarity in Random Collision Processes

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    Kinetics of collision processes with linear mixing rules are investigated analytically. The velocity distribution becomes self-similar in the long time limit and the similarity functions have algebraic or stretched exponential tails. The characteristic exponents are roots of transcendental equations and vary continuously with the mixing parameters. In the presence of conservation laws, the velocity distributions become universal.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Modelling the electric field applied to a tokamak

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    The vector potential for the Ohmic heating coil system of a tokamak is obtained in semi-analytical form. Comparison is made to the potential of a simple, finite solenoid. In the quasi-static limit, the time rate of change of the potential determines the induced electromotive force through the Maxwell-Lodge effect. Discussion of the gauge constraint is included.Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures, final versio

    Electron energy loss and induced photon emission in photonic crystals

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    The interaction of a fast electron with a photonic crystal is investigated by solving the Maxwell equations exactly for the external field provided by the electron in the presence of the crystal. The energy loss is obtained from the retarding force exerted on the electron by the induced electric field. The features of the energy loss spectra are shown to be related to the photonic band structure of the crystal. Two different regimes are discussed: for small lattice constants aa relative to the wavelength of the associated electron excitations λ\lambda, an effective medium theory can be used to describe the material; however, for a∌λa\sim\lambda the photonic band structure plays an important role. Special attention is paid to the frequency gap regions in the latter case.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figure

    Information erasure and the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics

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    We consider the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics in the light of quantum information theory, in particular information erasure and Landauer’s principle (namely, that erasure of information produces at least the equivalent amount of entropy). A small quantum system outside a black hole in the Hartle-Hawking state is studied, and the quantum system comes into thermal equilibrium with the radiation surrounding the black hole. For this scenario, we present a simple proof of the generalized second law based on quantum relative entropy. We then analyze the corresponding information erasure process, and confirm our proof of the generalized second law by applying Landauer’s principle

    Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Systems with Long Range Interactions: an Introduction

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    We review theoretical results obtained recently in the framework of statistical mechanics to study systems with long range forces. This fundamental and methodological study leads us to consider the different domains of applications in a trans-disciplinary perspective (astrophysics, nuclear physics, plasmas physics, metallic clusters, hydrodynamics,...) with a special emphasis on Bose-Einstein condensates.Comment: Chapter of the forthcoming "Lecture Notes in Physics" volume: ``Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Systems with Long Range Interactions'', T. Dauxois, S. Ruffo, E. Arimondo, M. Wilkens Eds., Lecture Notes in Physics Vol. 602, Springer (2002). (see http://link.springer.de/series/lnpp/

    Dynamical approach to the microcanonical ensemble

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    An analytical method to compute thermodynamic properties of a given Hamiltonian system is proposed. This method combines ideas of both dynamical systems and ensemble approaches to thermodynamics, providing de facto a possible alternative to traditional Ensemble methods. Thermodynamic properties are extracted from effective motion equations. These equations are obtained by introducing a general variational principle applied to an action averaged over a statistical ensemble of paths defined on the constant energy surface. The method is applied first to the one dimensional (\beta)-FPU chain and to the two dimensional lattice (\phi ^{4}) model. In both cases the method gives a good insight of some of their statistical and dynamical properties.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, RevTe