8,668 research outputs found

    Phase Errors in Diffraction-Limited Imaging: Contrast Limits for Sparse Aperture Masking

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    Bispectrum phase, closure phase and their generalisation to kernel-phase are all independent of pupil-plane phase errors to first-order. This property, when used with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) behind adaptive optics, has been used recently in high-contrast observations at or inside the formal diffraction limit of large telescopes. Finding the limitations to these techniques requires an understanding of spatial and temporal third-order phase effects, as well as effects such as time-variable dispersion when coupled with the non-zero bandwidths in real observations. In this paper, formulae describing many of these errors are developed, so that a comparison can be made to fundamental noise processes of photon- and background-noise. I show that the current generation of aperture-masking observations of young solar-type stars, taken carefully in excellent observing conditions, are consistent with being limited by temporal phase noise and photon noise. This has relevance for plans to combine pupil-remapping with spatial filtering. Finally, I describe calibration strategies for kernel-phase, including the optimised calibrator weighting as used for LkCa 15, and the restricted kernel-phase POISE technique that avoids explicit dependence on calibrators.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, resubmitted to MNRAS after responding to referee's comment

    FIRMS' STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSUMER PRICE SEARCH

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    This paper considers a simple model of competition based on some buyers making price comparisons between two suppliers. The difficulties of making appropriate comparisons are made greater by exclusive dealer agreements and restrictions, and by suppliers trading under more than one name. It is argued that suppliers will set prices using mixed strategies, and that prices become less competitive as price comparisons become more difficult. The implications for competition policy are considered in the light of recent judgements of the UK’s Office of Fair Trading and the European Court of Justice.

    Siting Issues for Solar Thermal Power Plants with Small Community Applications

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    Technologies for solar thermal plants are being developed to provide energy alternatives for the future. Implementation of these plants requires consideration of siting issues as well as power system technology. While many conventional siting considerations are applicable, there is also a set of unique siting issues for solar thermal plants. Early experimental plants will have special siting considerations. The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants in the 1 to 10 MWe power range for utility/small community applications are considered. Some specific requirements refer to the first 1 MWe engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project. The siting issues themselves are discussed in three categories: (1) system resource requirements, (2) environmental effects on the system, and (3) potential impact of the plant on the environment. Within these categories, specific issues are discussed in a qualitative manner. Examples of limiting factors for some issues are taken from studies of other solar systems

    On Cournot-Nash equilibria with exogenous uncertainty

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    A large body of literature has accumulated which examines how the optimal solution of an agent maximizing the expectation of a real-valued function, depending on a random parameterp and the agent's behaviorx, reacts to perturbations in the first and second moments ofp. Here, by an approximation valid for small uncertainty, we allow many agents and consider their behavior in a Cournot-Nash equilibrium. We also allowp to depend on the behaviors of the participating agents. We apply the analysis to two models, one of a Cournot oligopoly, the other of a cooperative of individuals where there is uncertainty in the return to communal work

    Thermal power systems small power systems application project: Siting issues for solar thermal power plants with small community applications

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    The siting issues associated with small, dispersed solar thermal power plants for utility/small community applications of less than 10 MWe are reported. Some specific requirements are refered to the first engineering experiment for the Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project. The background for the subsequent issue discussions is provided. The SPSA Project and the requirements for the first engineering experiment are described, and the objectives and scope for the report as a whole. A overview of solar thermal technologies and some technology options are discussed

    Model discrimination in pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction

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    To learn about a physical system of interest, experimental results must be able to discriminate among models. We introduce a geometrical measure to quantify the distance between models for pseudoscalar-meson photoproduction in amplitude space. Experimental observables, with finite precision, map to probability distributions in amplitude space, and the characteristic width scale of such distributions needs to be smaller than the distance between models if the observable data are going to be useful. We therefore also introduce a method for evaluating probability distributions in amplitude space that arise as a result of one or more measurements, and show how one can use this to determine what further measurements are going to be necessary to be able to discriminate among models
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