25,912 research outputs found

    Zero sound density oscillations in Fermi-Bose mixtures

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    Within a mean field plus Random-Phase Approximation formalism, we investigate the collective excitations of a three component Fermi-Bose mixture of K atoms, magnetically trapped and subjected to repulsive s-wave interactions. We analyze both the single-particle excitation and the density oscillation spectra created by external multipolar fields, for varying fermion concentrations. The formalism and the numerical output are consistent with the Generalized Kohn Theorem for the whole multispecies system. The calculations give rise to fragmented density excitation spectra of the fermion sample and illustrate the role of the mutual interaction in the observed deviations of the bosonic spectra with respect to Stringari's rule.Comment: 9 pages, 6 eps figures, submitted to Phys.Rev.

    Two-dimensional Bloch electrons in perpendicular magnetic fields: an exact calculation of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum

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    The problem of two-dimensional, independent electrons subject to a periodic potential and a uniform perpendicular magnetic field unveils surprisingly rich physics, as epitomized by the fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's Butterfly. It has hitherto been addressed using various approximations rooted in either the strong potential or the strong field limiting cases. Here we report calculations of the full spectrum of the single-particle Schr\"{o}dinger equation without further approximations. Our method is exact, up to numerical precision, for any combination of potential and uniform field strength. We first study a situation that corresponds to the strong potential limit, and compare the exact results to the predictions of a Hofstadter-like model. We then go on to analyze the evolution of the fractal spectrum from a Landau-like nearly-free electron system to the Hofstadter tight-binding limit by tuning the amplitude of the modulation potential

    Effects of Feed Additives and Mixed Eimeria Species Infection on Intestinal Microbial Ecology of Broilers

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    Evaluation of digestive microbial ecology is necessary to understand effects of growth-promoting feed. In the current study, the dynamics of intestinal microbial communities (MC) were examined in broilers fed diets supplemented with a combination of antibiotic (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) and ionophore (Coban 60), and diets containing 1 of 2 essential oil (EO) blends, Crina Poultry (CP) and Crina Alternate (CA). Five treatments were analyzed: 1) unmedicated uninfected control; 2) unmedicated infected control; 3) feed additives monensin (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) + monensin (Coban 60; AI); 4) EO blend CP; and 5) EO blend CA. Additives were mixed into a basal feed mixture, and EO were adjusted to 100 ppm. Chicks were infected by oral gavage at 19 d of age with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Duodenal, ileal, and cecal samples were taken from 12 birds per treatment just before and 7 d after challenge; 2 samples each were pooled to give a final number of 6 samples total; and all pooled samples were frozen until used for DNA extraction. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to examine PCR-amplified fragments of the bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA variable region. Results are presented as percentages of similarity coefficients (SC). Dendrograms of PCR amplicon or band patterns indicated MC differences due to intestinal location, feed additives, and cocci challenge. Essential oil blends CP and CA affected MC in all gut sections. Each EO had different effects over MC, and they differed in most instances from the AI group. The cocci challenge caused drastic MC population shifts in duodenal, ileal, and cecal sections (36.7, 55.4, and 36.2% SC, respectively). Diets supplemented with CP supported higher SC between pre- and postchallenge MC (89.9, 83.3, and 76.4%) than AI (81.8., 57.4, and 60.0%). We concluded that mixed coccidia challenge caused drastic shifts in MC. These EO blends modulated MC better than AI, avoiding drastic shifts after a mixed challenge

    Responses of Coccidia-Vaccinated Broilers to Essential Oil Blends Supplementation up to Forty-Nine Days of Age

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    Coccidiosis control may become a greater problem as the use of growth-promoting antibiotics (GPA) and ionophores declines. Vaccination with live oocysts may turn into a popular alternative to the use of coccidiostats in broilers, although cocci vaccination is frequently linked to temporary lower performance in young flocks. This experiment evaluates the dietary supplementation of 2 specific essential oil (EO) blends (Crina Poultry and Crina Alternate), either as alternatives to GPA and ionophores (BMD + Coban) or as feed additives that help to improve the performance of cocci-vaccinated broilers. Live performance and lesion scores were observed. These 2 specific EO blends differ in their efficacy to promote growth. Chickens that were not cocci vaccinated and were fed Crina Poultry had better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the unmedicated control treatment in the starter period. The same EO improved FCR in cocci-vaccinated birds in the finisher period in comparison to the negative control group, but those responses were not significantly different from other treatments or significant at 49 d of age. No significant differences were observed in lesion scores at 37 d. Diets supplemented with a GPA-ionophore combination consistently supported the best BW gain and FCR in each period and the entire grow-out period. No significant beneficial or deleterious effects on live performance were observed due to these specific EO blends in cocci-vaccinated broilers

    The Minimal Dependency Relation for Causal Event Ordering in Distributed Computing

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    Several algorithms of different domains in distributed systems are designed over the principle of the Happened-Before Relation (HBR). One common aspect among them is that they intend to be efficient in their implementation by identifying and ensuring the necessary and sufficient dependency constraints. In this pursuit, some previous works talk about the use of a transitive reduction of the causality. However, none of these works formally prove in a broad manner that such transitive reduction is the minimal expression of the HBR. In this paper, a formal study of the minimal binary relation (transitive reduction) of the HBR is presented, which is called the Immediate Dependency Relation (IDR). The study shows that since the transitive closure of the HBR is antisymmetric and finite, it implies that the IDR is unique. This is important because it means that all of the works that deal with a minimal expression of the HBR discuss the same minimal binary relation. In addition, an extension to the IDR to identify causal immediate dependencies only among a subset of relevant events is presented. Finally, as case of study, the extension of the IDR is applied to the causal delivery of messages

    Preface "Nonlinear processes in oceanic and atmospheric flows"

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    Nonlinear phenomena are essential ingredients in many oceanic and atmospheric processes, and successful understanding of them benefits from multidisciplinary collaboration between oceanographers, meteorologists, physicists and mathematicians. The present Special Issue on ``Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows'' contains selected contributions from attendants to the workshop which, in the above spirit, was held in Castro Urdiales, Spain, in July 2008. Here we summarize the Special Issue contributions, which include papers on the characterization of ocean transport in the Lagrangian and in the Eulerian frameworks, generation and variability of jets and waves, interactions of fluid flow with plankton dynamics or heavy drops, scaling in meteorological fields, and statistical properties of El Ni\~no Southern Oscillation.Comment: This is the introductory article to a Special Issue on "Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows'', published in the journal Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, where the different contributions are summarized. The Special Issue itself is freely available from http://www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/special_issue103.htm

    Production of Two Pions Induced by Neutrinos

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    We study the threshold production of two pions induced by neutrinos in nucleon targets. The contribution of nucleon pole, pion and contact terms is calculated using a chiral Lagrangian. The contribution of the Roper resonance, neglected in earlier studies, has also been taken into account.Comment: Contribution to the proceedings of Chiral07, RCNP, Osaka, Japan. Corrected version because of problems on some pdf viewer

    Finite size effects in adsorption of helium mixtures by alkali substrates

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    We investigate the behavior of mixed 3He-4He droplets on alkali surfaces at zero temperature, within the frame of Finite Range Density Functional theory. The properties of one single 3He atom on 4He_N4 droplets on different alkali surfaces are addressed, and the energetics and structure of 4He_N4+3He_N3 systems on Cs surfaces, for nanoscopic 4He drops, are analyzed through the solutions of the mean field equations for varying number N3 of 3He atoms. We discuss the size effects on the single particle spectrum of 3He atoms and on the shapes of both helium distributions.Comment: 12 pages, and 12 figures (PNG format
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