2,888 research outputs found

    Despite their anti-trade rhetoric, Trump or Clinton would do little to threaten trans-Atlantic trade policy.

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    Given the protectionist policy statements of Trump, Clinton and Sanders, will America soon see a retrenchment of its trade policies away from globalization? In the first in a series of commentaries from the US-Europe Dahrendorf Forum working group, Julia Gray argues that while it may be politically expedient for candidates to oppose trade deals, history shows that they are rarely shy about implementing them once in office. She writes that it’s also important to remember that though governments sign trade deals, trade is ultimately in the hands of firms; trade will likely continue in much the same way whether or not trade agreements are fully implemented

    Historical Archaeology Possibilities for Arkansas

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    Despite early examples of historical archaeology in North America, the field did not gain formal status until the mid-1960s. Since that time there has been continual debate as to what historical archaeology actually is, what it does or what it should do. To understand this debate, it is first necessary to examine some early orientations of the discipline

    Spirit of Maine in song and story.

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    Thesis (M.A.)--Boston University This item was digitized by the Internet Archive

    The Knowledge of Dementia Among Nursing Staff Working in Special Care Units

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    Dementia is a growing concern among the elder population. Special Care Units in long-term settings are becoming common placements for elders with dementia. The nursing staff within Special Care Units ideally have additional training in dementia. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the knowledge of dementia among nursing staff working in Special Care Units

    Trade and Volatility at the Core and Periphery of the Global Economy

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/95090/1/j.1468-2478.2012.00748.x.pd

    Climate Variability and Human Migration in the Netherlands, 1865-1937

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    Human migration is frequently cited as a potential social outcome of climate change and variability, and these effects are often assumed to be stronger in the past when economies were less developed and markets more localized. Yet, few studies have used historical data to test the relationship between climate and migration directly. In addition, the results of recent studies that link demographic and climate data are not consistent with conventional narratives of displacement responses. Using longitudinal individual-level demographic data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN) and climate data that cover the same period, we examine the effects of climate variability on migration using event history models. Only internal moves in the later period and for certain social groups are associated with negative climate conditions, and the strength and direction of the observed effects change over time. International moves decrease with extreme rainfall, suggesting that the complex relationships between climate and migration that have been observed for contemporary populations extend into the nineteenth century

    Opportunistic, not Optimal Delegation: The Political Origins of Central Bank Independence

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    Economists have long argued that central banks ran by technocrats have greater independence from the government. But in many countries, politically experienced central bankers are at the helm, including even highly independent central banks. To explain the level of central bank independence awarded, we develop a formal model where nominating politicians screen central bankers for their political ambitions. We show how screening and reelection efforts by the nominating politician changes the level of autonomy associated with different types of candidates. We predict that technocrats are associated with higher levels of independence than nominees with political experience, but as the appointing politician faces tougher reelection, candidates with political experience are associated with higher independence as well. We test our theory using new data from 29 post-communist countries between 1990-2012. We find evidence that the reelection strategy of the nominating politician is an important predictor of the level of central bank independence

    The Dynamics of Enlargement in International Organizations

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    Most international organizations (IOs) expand their membership over the course of their lifespan. Although these enlargements tend to be heralded as normatively positive — for the IOs themselves, for the new members, and for cooperative outcomes more generally — expansions can also lead to conflicts in the organization. What conditions lead to enlargement rounds that reshape an organization in unexpected ways? We argue that, depending upon the diversity of the initial group of countries, members may vote to admit new entrants that can tilt organizational decision-making in unexpected directions. We anticipate fewer enlargements with lesser impact on the character of the organization among organizations that have either a smaller range of founding members or a relatively even initial dispersion. We develop an agent-based model that accounts for the complex decision-making environment and social dynamics that typify IO accession processes. The model helps us explain how the nature of decision-making in organizations can shift following enlargement, likely changing the organization’s output and goals

    Patronage Explanations for the Survival of International Organizations

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    This paper argues that even ineffective international organizations can serve valuable patronage functions for their member states. Even if IOs fail in their goals, the bureaucracies surrounding them can still be used for patronage, defined here as the use of public office for political and personal gain. The bureaucracies surrounding international organizations can offer substantial private rents for member state governments. The perqs that an IO can offer can lead to ineffective organizations hanging on, even if they do not fulfill their original mandate. Patronage can thus be an unintended consequence of IOs, leading to a misuse of the structure of IOs for corrupt purposes. This goes beyond the study of bureaucratic drift to present a more pathological version of IOs. I illustrate this argument using two sets of empirical tests. The first establishes the broad logic of patronage as a driver of IO survival, and the second demonstrates the microfoundations. For the first, I use an original datset of international economic organizations around the world to show that the survival of ineffective IOs is particularly likely when member states are corrupt. Patronage inclinations in member states makes ineffective organizations 15 percent more likely to survive. This demonstrates the broader pattern of the relationship between IO survival and patronage; I then go on to illustrate the patronage mechanism through examining finer-grained data from a subset of IOs. Using budget data gathered firsthand from 11 international economic organizations across the world, I show that member states where corruption is high tend to be associated with IOs where patronage practices persist. Through these budget data, I develop original measures of patronage in IOs: slush funding in organizations and the nonwage benefits awarded to staff, differentiated from such benefits received by member states. These novel measures offer unique insight into the ways in which IOs can be used for private gain.Ohio State University. Mershon Center for International Security StudiesEvent web page, Event photo
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