464 research outputs found

    Simulating cosmic metal enrichment by the first galaxies

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    We study cosmic metal enrichment via AMR hydrodynamical simulations in a (10 Mpc/h)3^3 volume following the Pop III-Pop II transition and for different Pop III IMFs. We have analyzed the joint evolution of metal enrichment on galactic and intergalactic scales at z=6 and z=4. Galaxies account for <9% of the baryonic mass; the remaining gas resides in the diffuse phases: (a) voids, i.e. regions with extremely low density (Δ\Delta<1), (b) the true intergalactic medium (IGM, 1<Δ\Delta<10) and (c) the circumgalactic medium (CGM, 10<Δ<102.5\Delta<10^{2.5}), the interface between the IGM and galaxies. By z=6 a galactic mass-metallicity relation is established. At z=4, galaxies with a stellar mass M=108.5MM_*=10^{8.5}M_\odot show log(O/H)+12=8.19, consistent with observations. The total amount of heavy elements rises from ΩZSFH=1.52106\Omega^{SFH}_Z=1.52\, 10^{-6} at z=6 to 8.05 10610^{-6} at z=4. Metals in galaxies make up to ~0.89 of such budget at z=6; this fraction increases to ~0.95 at z=4. At z=6 (z=4) the remaining metals are distributed in CGM/IGM/voids with the following mass fractions: 0.06/0.04/0.01 (0.03/0.02/0.01). Analogously to galaxies, at z=4 a density-metallicity (Δ\Delta-Z) relation is in place for the diffuse phases: the IGM/voids have a spatially uniform metallicity, Z~103.510^{-3.5}Zsun; in the CGM Z steeply rises with density up to ~10210^{-2}Zsun. In all diffuse phases a considerable fraction of metals is in a warm/hot (T>104.510^{4.5}K) state. Due to these physical conditions, CIV absorption line experiments can probe only ~2% of the total carbon present in the IGM/CGM; however, metal absorption line spectra are very effective tools to study reionization. Finally, the Pop III star formation history is almost insensitive to the chosen Pop III IMF. Pop III stars are preferentially formed in truly pristine (Z=0) gas pockets, well outside polluted regions created by previous star formation episodes.Comment: 23 pages, 18 figures, 3 tables, Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Testing Reionization with Gamma Ray Burst Absorption Spectra

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    We propose to study cosmic reionization using absorption line spectra of high-redshift Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows. We show that the statistics of the dark portions (gaps) in GRB absorption spectra represent exquisite tools to discriminate among different reionization models. We then compute the probability to find the largest gap in a given width range [Wmax, Wmax + dW] at a flux threshold Fth for burst afterglows at redshifts 6.3 < z < 6.7. We show that different reionization scenarios populate the (Wmax, Fth) plane in a very different way, allowing to distinguish among different reionization histories. We provide here useful plots that allow a very simple and direct comparison between observations and model results. Finally, we apply our methods to GRB 050904 detected at z = 6.29. We show that the observation of this burst strongly favors reionization models which predict a highly ionized intergalactic medium at z~6, with an estimated mean neutral hydrogen fraction xHI = 6.4 \pm 0.3 \times 10^-5 along the line of sight towards GRB 050904.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, revised to match the accepted version; major change: gap statistics is now studied in terms of the flux threshold Fth, instead of the observed J-band flux FJ; MNRAS in pres

    On the [CII]-SFR relation in high redshift galaxies

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    After two ALMA observing cycles, only a handful of [CII] 158μm158\,\mu m emission line searches in z>6 galaxies have reported a positive detection, questioning the applicability of the local [CII]-SFR relation to high-z systems. To investigate this issue we use the Vallini et al. 2013 (V13) model, based on high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations to predict the [CII] emission from the interstellar medium of a z~7 (halo mass Mh=1.17×1011MM_h=1.17\times10^{11}M_{\odot}) galaxy. We improve the V13 model by including (a) a physically-motivated metallicity (Z) distribution of the gas, (b) the contribution of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs), (c) the effects of Cosmic Microwave Background on the [CII] line luminosity. We study the relative contribution of diffuse neutral gas to the total [CII] emission (Fdiff/FtotF _{diff}/F_{tot}) for different SFR and Z values. We find that the [CII] emission arises predominantly from PDRs: regardless of the galaxy properties, Fdiff/Ftot10F _{diff}/F_{tot}\leq 10% since, at these early epochs, the CMB temperature approaches the spin temperature of the [CII] transition in the cold neutral medium (TCMBTsCNM20T_{CMB}\sim T_s^{CNM}\sim 20 K). Our model predicts a high-z [CII]-SFR relation consistent with observations of local dwarf galaxies (0.02<Z/Z<0.50.02<Z/Z_{\odot}<0.5). The [CII] deficit suggested by actual data (LCII<2.0×107LL_{CII}<2.0\times 10^7 L_{\odot} in BDF3299 at z~7.1) if confirmed by deeper ALMA observations, can be ascribed to negative stellar feedback disrupting molecular clouds around star formation sites. The deviation from the local [CII]-SFR would then imply a modified Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in z>6 galaxies. Alternatively/in addition, the deficit might be explained by low gas metallicities (Z<0.1ZZ<0.1 Z_{\odot}).Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, replaced with the version accepted for pubblication in Ap

    CO line emission from galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization

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    We study the CO line luminosity (LCOL_{\rm CO}), the shape of the CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED), and the value of the CO-to-H2\rm H_2 conversion factor in galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). To this aim, we construct a model that simultaneously takes into account the radiative transfer and the clumpy structure of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) where the CO lines are excited. We then use it to post-process state-of-the-art zoomed, high resolution (30pc30\, \rm{pc}), cosmological simulation of a main-sequence (M1010MM_{*}\approx10^{10}\, \rm{M_{\odot}}, SFR100Myr1SFR\approx 100\,\rm{M_{\odot}\, yr^{-1}}) galaxy, "Alth{\ae}a", at z6z\approx6. We find that the CO emission traces the inner molecular disk (r0.5kpcr\approx 0.5 \,\rm{kpc}) of Alth{\ae}a with the peak of the CO surface brightness co-located with that of the [CII] 158μm\rm \mu m emission. Its LCO(10)=104.85LL_{\rm CO(1-0)}=10^{4.85}\, \rm{L_{\odot}} is comparable to that observed in local galaxies with similar stellar mass. The high (Σgas220Mpc2\Sigma_{gas} \approx 220\, \rm M_{\odot}\, pc^{-2}) gas surface density in Alth{\ae}a, its large Mach number (\mach30\approx 30), and the warm kinetic temperature (Tk45KT_{k}\approx 45 \, \rm K) of GMCs yield a CO SLED peaked at the CO(7-6) transition, i.e. at relatively high-JJ, and a CO-to-H2\rm H_2 conversion factor αCO1.5M(Kkms1pc2)1\alpha_{\rm CO}\approx 1.5 \, \rm M_{\odot} \rm (K\, km\, s^{-1}\, pc^2)^{-1} lower than that of the Milky Way. The ALMA observing time required to detect (resolve) at 5σ\sigma the CO(7-6) line from galaxies similar to Alth{\ae}a is 13\approx13 h (38\approx 38 h).Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    WATER POLICY AND THE SUSTAINABILITY OF IRRIGATED SYSTEMS IN ITALY

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    The management of water resources is today one of the main issues in most countries. In Italy, as in many other European countries, irrigation is the main sector using water and hence it is at the centre of the water policy agenda. Water management for irrigation requires suitable policy tools able to meet social objectives and private behaviour. The legal framework in the European Union is today faced with the new Water Framework Directive (60/2000), that sets up new criteria for water management, regulation and pricing. Among other things, the Water Framework Directive introduces the principle of full cost recovery and the polluter pays principle for water users. For many areas of Italy, this may be a significant shift compared to present payment criteria, based on traditional rights, area prices, and only a partial cost recovery from final users. The objective of this paper is to analyse the problem of water regulation for irrigated agriculture, through a simulation model based on the integration of a mathematical decision making model and a principal agent. The methodology allows to quantify water demand and optimal regulation from the point of view of the policy maker. The results show major impacts of water availability and prices on farm income. The adoption of a mix of pricing instruments related at the same time to charges associated to crop mix, water consumption and pollution can significantly improve water policy efficacy.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Interpreting the Transmission Windows of Distant Quasars

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    We propose the Apparent Shrinking Criterion (ASC) to interpret the spatial extent, R_w, of transmitted flux windows in the absorption spectra of high-z quasars. The ASC can discriminate between the two regimes in which R_w corresponds either to the physical size, R_HII, of the quasar HII region, or to the distance, R^{max}_w, at which the transmitted flux drops to =0.1 and a Gunn-Peterson (GP) trough appears. In the first case (HR regime), one can determine the IGM mean HI fraction, x_HI; in the second (PR regime), the value of R_w allows to measure the local photoionization rate and the local enhancement of the photoionization rate, Gamma_G, due to nearby/intervening galaxies. The ASC has been tested against radiative transfer+SPH numerical simulations, and applied to 15 high-z (z>5.8) quasars sample from Fan et al. (2006). All sample quasars are found to be in the PR regime; hence, their observed spectral properties (inner flux profile, extent of transmission window) cannot reliably constrain the value of x_HI. Four sample quasars show evidence for a local enhancement (up to 50%) in the local photoionization rate possibly produced by a galaxy overdensity. We discuss the possible interpretations and uncertainties of this result.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Host galaxies of high-redshift quasars: SMBH growth and feedback

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    The properties of quasar-host galaxies might be determined by the growth and feedback of their supermassive black holes (SMBHs, 108-10 M⊙). We investigate such connection with a suite of cosmological simulations of massive (halo mass ≈1012 M⊙) galaxies at z ≃ 6 that include a detailed subgrid multiphase gas and accretion model. BH seeds of initial mass 105 M⊙ grow mostly by gas accretion, and become SMBH by z = 6 setting on the observed MBH-M∗ relation without the need for a boost factor. Although quasar feedback crucially controls the SMBH growth, its impact on the properties of the host galaxy at z = 6 is negligible. In our model, quasar activity can both quench (via gas heating) or enhance (by interstellar medium overpressurization) star formation. However, we find that the star formation history is insensitive to such modulation as it is largely dominated, at least at z &gt; 6, by cold gas accretion from the environment that cannot be hindered by the quasar energy deposition. Although quasar-driven outflows can achieve velocities &gt; 1000 km s-1, only ≈4 per cent of the outflowing gas mass can actually escape from the host galaxy. These findings are only loosely constrained by available data, but can guide observational campaigns searching for signatures of quasar feedback in early galaxies

    Kinematics of z6z\geq 6 galaxies from [CII] line emission

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    We study the kinematical properties of galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization via the [CII] 158μ\mum line emission. The line profile provides information on the kinematics as well as structural properties such as the presence of a disk and satellites. To understand how these properties are encoded in the line profile, first we develop analytical models from which we identify disk inclination and gas turbulent motions as the key parameters affecting the line profile. To gain further insights, we use "Althaea", a highly-resolved (30pc30\, \rm pc) simulated prototypical Lyman Break Galaxy, in the redshift range z=67z = 6-7, when the galaxy is in a very active assembling phase. Based on morphology, we select three main dynamical stages: I) Merger , II) Spiral Disk, and III) Disturbed Disk. We identify spectral signatures of merger events, spiral arms, and extra-planar flows in I), II), and III), respectively. We derive a generalised dynamical mass vs. [CII]-line FWHM relation. If precise information on the galaxy inclination is (not) available, the returned mass estimate is accurate within a factor 22 (44). A Tully-Fisher relation is found for the observed high-zz galaxies, i.e. L[CII](FWHM)1.80±0.35L_{\rm[CII]}\propto (FWHM)^{1.80\pm 0.35} for which we provide a simple, physically-based interpretation. Finally, we perform mock ALMA simulations to check the detectability of [CII]. When seen face-on, Althaea is always detected at >5σ> 5\sigma; in the edge-on case it remains undetected because the larger intrinsic FWHM pushes the line peak flux below detection limit. This suggests that some of the reported non-detections might be due to inclination effects.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

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    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z6z\sim6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of ALMA, far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [CII] line at 157.74 μ\mum is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter CMB photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB\Delta I/I_{CMB}) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [CII] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z6z\sim 6 by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA BAND6 data (νobs272\nu_{obs}\sim 272 GHz). The [CII] line flux is correlated with MUVM_{UV} as log(Fpeak/μJy)=27.2052.253MUV0.038MUV2\log(F_{peak}/\mu{\rm Jy})=-27.205-2.253\,M_{UV}-0.038\,M_{UV}^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations (e.g. Maiolino et al. 2015; Capak et al. 2015) of MUV<20M_{UV}<-20 galaxies. We predict that a MUV=19M_{UV}=-19 (MUV=18M_{UV}=-18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ4\sigma in 40\simeq40 (2000) hours, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ±0.1μ\simeq\pm 0.1\,\muJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV19M_{UV}\simeq-19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [CII] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z6z\sim6 metals.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figure
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