11,278 research outputs found

    Effective Potential Study of the Chiral Phase Transition in a QCD-like Theory

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    We construct the effective potential for a QCD-like theory using the auxiliary field method. The chiral phase transition exhibited by the model at finite temperature and the quark chemical potential is studied from the viewpoint of the shape change of the potential near the critical point. We further generalize the effective potential so as to have quark number and scalar quark densities as independent variables near the tri-critical point.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figures, using PTPTeX.cl

    Survival Rates of Planets in Open Clusters: the Pleiades, Hyades, and Praesepe clusters

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    In clustered environments, stellar encounters can liberate planets from their host stars via close encounters. Although the detection probability of planets suggests that the planet population in open clusters resembles that in the field, only a few dozen planet-hosting stars have been discovered in open clusters. We explore the survival rates of planets against stellar encounters in open clusters similar to the Pleiades, Hyades, and Praesepe and embedded clusters. We performed a series of N-body simulations of high-density and low-density open clusters, open clusters that grow via mergers of subclusters, and embedded clusters. We semi-analytically calculated the survival rate of planets in star clusters up to 1Gyr using relative velocities, masses, and impact parameters of intruding stars. Less than 1.5% of close-in planets within 1 AU and at most 7% of planets with 1-10 AU are ejected by stellar encounters in clustered environments after the dynamical evolution of star clusters. If a planet population from 0.01-100 AU in an open cluster initially follows the probability distribution function of exoplanets with semi-major axis (apa_p) between 0.03-3 AU in the field discovered by RV surveys, the PDF of surviving planets beyond ~10 AU in open clusters can be slightly modified to ap0.76\propto a_p^{-0.76}. The production rate of free-floating planets (FFPs) per star is 0.0096-0.18, where we have assumed that all the stars initially have one giant planet with a mass of 1--13 MJ in a circular orbit. The expected frequency of FFPs is compatible with the upper limit on that of FFPs indicated by recent microlensing surveys. Our survival rates of planets in open clusters suggest that planets within 10 AU around FGKM-type stars are rich in relatively-young (<~10-100 Myr for open clusters and ~1-10 Myr for embedded clusters), less massive open clusters, which are promising targets for planet searches.Comment: 23 pages, 15 figures, A&A accepte

    Lefschetz thimble structure in one-dimensional lattice Thirring model at finite density

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    We investigate Lefschetz thimble structure of the complexified path-integration in the one-dimensional lattice massive Thirring model with finite chemical potential. The lattice model is formulated with staggered fermions and a compact auxiliary vector boson (a link field), and the whole set of the critical points (the complex saddle points) are sorted out, where each critical point turns out to be in a one-to-one correspondence with a singular point of the effective action (or a zero point of the fermion determinant). For a subset of critical point solutions in the uniform-field subspace, we examine the upward and downward cycles and the Stokes phenomenon with varying the chemical potential, and we identify the intersection numbers to determine the thimbles contributing to the path-integration of the partition function. We show that the original integration path becomes equivalent to a single Lefschetz thimble at small and large chemical potentials, while in the crossover region multi thimbles must contribute to the path integration. Finally, reducing the model to a uniform field space, we study the relative importance of multiple thimble contributions and their behavior toward continuum and low-temperature limits quantitatively, and see how the rapid crossover behavior is recovered by adding the multi thimble contributions at low temperatures. Those findings will be useful for performing Monte-Carlo simulations on the Lefschetz thimbles.Comment: 32 pages, 14 figures (typo etc. corrected

    Mixed magnetic phases in (Ga,Mn)As epilayers

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    Two different ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transitions are detected in (Ga,Mn)As/GaAs(001) epilayers from ac susceptibility measurements: transition at a higher temperature results from (Ga,Mn)As cluster phases with [110] uniaxial anisotropy and that at a lower temperature is associated with a ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As matrix with cubic anisotropy. A change in the magnetic easy axis from [100] to [110] with increasing temperature can be explained by the reduced contribution of cubic anisotropy to the magnetic properties above the transition temperature of the (Ga,Mn)As matrix

    Possible link between the changing fine-structure constant and the accelerating universe via scalar-tensor theory

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    In 1976, Shlyakhter showed that the Sm data from Oklo results in the upper bound on the time-variability of the fine-structure constant: |\dot{\alpha}/\alpha| \lsim 10^{-17}{\rm y}^{-1}, which has ever been the most stringent bound. Since the details have never been published, however, we recently re-analyzed the latest data according to Shlyakhter's recipe. We nearly re-confirmed his result. To be more precise, however, the Sm data gives either an upper-bound or an "evidence" for a changing α\alpha: α˙/α=(0.44±0.04)×1016y1\dot{\alpha}/\alpha = -(0.44 \pm 0.04)\times 10^{-16}{\rm y}^{-1}. A remark is made to a similar re-analysis due to Damour and Dyson. We also compare our result with a recent "evidence" due to Webb et al, obtained from distant QSO's. We point out a possible connection between this time-dependence and the behavior of a scalar field supposed to be responsible for the acceleration of the universe, also revealed recently.Comment: 13 pages including 3 figures; delivered at First Int ASTROD School and Symposium, Sep 13-23, 2001, Beijing, to appear in Int. J. Modern Phys. D, as part of Proceedings. Minor changes in the reference

    Quintessence, scalar-tensor theories and non-Newtonian gravity

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    We discuss some of the issues which we encounter when we try to invoke the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation as a theoretical basis of quintessence. One of the advantages of appealing to these theories is that they allow us to implement the scenario of a ``decaying cosmological constant,'' which offers a reasonable understanding of why the observed upper bound of the cosmological constant is smaller than the theoretically natural value by as much as 120 orders of magnitude. In this context, the scalar field can be a candidate of quintessence in a broader sense. We find, however, a serious drawback in the prototype Brans-Dicke model with Λ\Lambda added; a static universe in the physical conformal frame which is chosen to have constant particle masses. We propose a remedy by modifying the matter coupling of the scalar field taking advantage of scale invariance and its breakdown through quantum anomaly. By combining this with a conjecture on another cosmological constant problem coming from the vacuum energy of matter fields, we expect a possible link between quintessence and non-Newtonian gravity featuring violation of Weak Equivalence Principle and intermediate force range, likely within the experimental constraints. A new prediction is also offered on the time-variability of the gravitational constant.Comment: 12 pages LaTex including 1 eps figur

    BRIDGE: A Direct-tree Hybrid N-body Algorithm for Fully Self-consistent Simulations of Star Clusters and their Parent Galaxies

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    We developed a new direct-tree hybrid N-body algorithm for fully self-consistent N-body simulations of star clusters in their parent galaxies. In such simulations, star clusters need high accuracy, while galaxies need a fast scheme because of the large number of the particles required to model it. In our new algorithm, the internal motion of the star cluster is calculated accurately using the direct Hermite scheme with individual timesteps and all other motions are calculated using the tree code with second-order leapfrog integrator. The direct and tree schemes are combined using an extension of the mixed variable symplectic (MVS) scheme. Thus, the Hamiltonian corresponding to everything other than the internal motion of the star cluster is integrated with the leapfrog, which is symplectic. Using this algorithm, we performed fully self-consistent N-body simulations of star clusters in their parent galaxy. The internal and orbital evolutions of the star cluster agreed well with those obtained using the direct scheme. We also performed fully self-consistent N-body simulation for large-N models (N=2×106N=2\times 10^6). In this case, the calculation speed was seven times faster than what would be if the direct scheme was used.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figures, Accepted for PAS
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