1,864 research outputs found

    Classical Time Crystals

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    We consider the possibility that classical dynamical systems display motion in their lowest energy state, forming a time analogue of crystalline spatial order. Challenges facing that idea are identified and overcome. We display arbitrary orbits of an angular variable as lowest-energy trajectories for nonsingular Lagrangian systems. Dynamics within orbits of broken symmetry provide a natural arena for formation of time crystals. We exhibit models of that kind, including a model with traveling density waves.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figur

    Lagrangian Particle Statistics in Turbulent Flows from a Simple Vortex Model

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    The statistics of Lagrangian particles in turbulent flows is considered in the framework of a simple vortex model. Here, the turbulent velocity field is represented by a temporal sequence of Burgers vortices of different circulation, strain, and orientation. Based on suitable assumptions about the vortices' statistical properties, the statistics of the velocity increments is derived. In particular, the origin and nature of small-scale intermittency in this model is investigated both numerically and analytically

    Shiba impurity bound states as a probe of topological superconductivity and Fermion parity changing quantum phase transitions

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    Spin-orbit coupled superconductors are potentially interesting candidates for realizing topological and potentially non-Abelian states with Majorana Fermions. We argue that time-reversal broken spin-orbit coupled superconductors generically can be characterized as having sub-gap states that are bound to localized non-magnetic impurities. Such bound states, which are referred to as Shiba states, can be detected as sharp resonances in the tunneling spectrum of the spin-orbit coupled superconductors. The Shiba state resonance can be tuned using a gate-voltage or a magnetic field from being at the edge of the gap at zero magnetic fields to crossing zero energy when the Zeeman splitting is tuned into the topological superconducting regime. The zero-crossing signifies a Fermion parity changing first order quantum phase transition, which is characterized by a Pfaffian topological invariant. These zero-crossings of the impurity level can be used to locally characterize the topological superconducting state from tunneling experiments.Comment: 5 pages; 3 figures: minor reference update

    Model study of the sign problem in the mean-field approximation

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    We argue the sign problem of the fermion determinant at finite density. It is unavoidable not only in Monte-Carlo simulations on the lattice but in the mean-field approximation as well. A simple model deriving from Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the double limit of large quark mass and large quark chemical potential exemplifies how the sign problem arises in the Polyakov loop dynamics at finite temperature and density. In the color SU(2) case our mean-field estimate is in excellent agreement with the lattice simulation. We combine the mean-field approximation with a simple phase reweighting technique to circumvent the complex action encountered in the color SU(3) case. We also investigate the mean-field free energy, from the saddle-point of which we can estimate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop.Comment: 14 page, 18 figures, typos corrected, references added, some clarification in sec.I

    Vortices, zero modes and fractionalization in bilayer-graphene exciton condensate

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    A real-space formulation is given for the recently discussed exciton condensate in a symmetrically biased graphene bilayer. We show that in the continuum limit an oddly-quantized vortex in this condensate binds exactly one zero mode per valley index of the bilayer. In the full lattice model the zero modes are split slightly due to intervalley mixing. We support these results by an exact numerical diagonalization of the lattice Hamiltonian. We also discuss the effect of the zero modes on the charge content of these vortices and deduce some of their interesting properties.Comment: (v2) A typo in Fig. 1 and a slight error in Eq. (4) corrected; all the main results and conclusions remain unchange

    SO(3) family symmetry and axions

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    Motivated by the idea of comprehensive unification, we study a gauged SO(3) flavor extension of the extended Standard Model, including right-handed neutrinos and a Peccei-Quinn symmetry with simple charge assignments. The model accommodates the observed fermion masses and mixings and yields a characteristic, successful relation among them. The Peccei-Quinn symmetry is an essential ingredient.Comment: 9 pages, matches published versio

    Spin Hamiltonian for which the Chiral Spin Liquid is the Exact Ground State

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    We construct a Hamiltonian that singles out the chiral spin liquid on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions as the exact and, apart from the two-fold topological degeneracy, unique ground state.Comment: 5 pages, no figure

    Is there an attraction between spinons in the Haldane--Shastry model?

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    While the Bethe Ansatz solution of the Haldane--Shastry model appears to suggest that the spinons represent a free gas of half-fermions, Bernevig, Giuliano, and Laughlin (BGL) (cond-mat/0011069, cond-mat/0011270) have concluded recently that there is an attractive interaction between spinons. We argue that the dressed scattering matrix obtained with the asymptotic Bethe Ansatz is to be interpreted as the true and physical scattering matrix of the excitations, and hence, that the result by BGL is inconsistent with an earlier result by Essler (cond-mat/9406081). We critically re-examine the analysis of BGL, and conclude that there is no interaction between spinons or spinons and holons in the Haldane--Shastry model

    Energy Spectrum of Anyons in a Magnetic Field

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    For the many-anyon system in external magnetic field, we derive the energy spectrum as an exact solution of the quantum eigenvalue problem with particular topological constraints. Our results agree with the numerical spectra recently obtained for the 3- and the 4-anyon systems.Comment: 11 pages in Plain LaTeX (plus 4 figures available on request), DFPD 92/TH/4
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