1,574 research outputs found

    Enhanced Coupling Values in Coupled Microstrip Lines using Metamaterials

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    In this paper, we show how metamaterials can be used to enhance the coupling values of microstrip directional couplers. Coupling between regular coplanar microstrip lines, in fact, is limited, due to the small ratios between the characteristic impedances of even and odd TEM modes supported by the structure. The broadside configuration or the employment of an overlay are often utilized to overcome this limitation, leading, however, to more bulky components. On the other hand, the employment of metamaterials with a negative real part of the permittivity is able to increase the coupling values, while keeping the profile of the structure very low. A quasi-static model of the structure is developed and physical insights on the operation of the proposed component and on the role of the metamaterial loading are also given. Simple design formulae derived through a conformal mapping technique are presented and validated through proper full wave numerical simulations

    COVID-19 emergency in the hospital: How the clinical psychology unit is responding

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    The present commentary describes the main care services implemented by the clinical psychology unit of an Italian hospital to cope with the COVID-19 emergency outbreak. The unit's main goal has been to support and protect health care professionals, relatives of hospitalized patients, and patients themselves from further psychological distress. Details and insights are shared. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)

    Caring for Critically Ill Patients : Clinicians’ Empathy Promotes Job Satisfaction and Does Not Predict Moral Distress

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    Background: Several studies have highlighted the benefits of empathy in healthcare settings. A correlation between clinicians' empathy and patients' adherence and satisfaction, as well as the ability for the clinician to accurately assess family members' needs, has been found. However, empathy is often seen by clinicians as a risk factor for their wellbeing. This study aims to assess whether the level of empathy of clinicians working in critical care settings may expose them to moral distress, poor job satisfaction, and intention to quit their job. Methods: Italian clinicians who attended the 2016 "Smart Meeting Anesthesia Resuscitation in Intensive Care" completed the Empathy Quotient questionnaire, the Moral Distress Scale-Revised, and two questions assessing job satisfaction and intention to quit the job. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed to determine if clinicians' empathy influences moral distress, job satisfaction, and intention to quit. Age, gender, and profession were used as control variables. Results: Out of 927 questionnaires distributed, 216 were returned (23% response rate) and 210 were used in the analyses. Respondents were 56% physicians, 24% nurses, and 20% residents. Over half of the clinicians (58%) were female. Empathy resulted the only significant predictor of job satisfaction (\u3b2 = 0.193; p < 0.05). None of the variables included in the model predicted moral distress. Conclusion: Empathy determined neither moral distress nor intention to quit. Findings suggest that empathy is not a risk factor for critical care clinicians in developing moral distress and the intention to quit their job. On the contrary, empathy was found to enhance clinicians' job satisfaction

    FSS-based approach for the power transmission enhancement through electrically small apertures

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In this paper, a novel approach, based on the employment of frequency selective surfaces, to enhance the power transmission through sub-wavelength apertures at the microwave frequencies is presented. A heuristic interpretation of the phenomenon is given, as well as an analytical model, based on the transmission line network representation. Finally, the performance of the proposed structure is validated through a set of full-wave numerical simulations. ┬ę 2011 Springer-Verlag

    Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In the present work, we studied particle candidates for metamaterial applications, especially in terms of their electrical size and resonance strength. The analyzed particles can be easily produced via planar fabrication techniques. The electrical size of multi-split ring resonators, spiral resonators, and multi-spiral resonators are reported as a function of the particle side length and substrate permittivity. The study is continued by demonstrating the scalability of the particles to higher frequencies and the proposition of the optimized particle for antenna, absorber, and superlens applications: a multi-spiral resonator with lambda/30 electrical size operating at 0.810 GHz. We explain a method for tuning the resonance frequency of the multi-split structures. Finally, we demonstrate that by inserting deep subwavelength resonators into periodically arranged subwavelength apertures, complete transmission enhancement can be obtained at the magnetic resonance frequency. (C) 2009 Optical Society of Americ

    Miniaturized negative permeability materials

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Experimental and numerical studies of mu-negative (MNG) materials such as multisplit ring resonators (MSRRs) and spiral resonators (SRs) are presented. The resonance frequency of the structures is determined by the transmission measurements and minimum electrical size of lambda(0)/17 for the MSRRs and of lambda(0)/82 for the SRs observed. These MNG materials can be easily produced by the well developed printed circuit board and optical lithography techniques. They are promising elements for the development of high resolution metamaterial lenses and electrically small antennas. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics

    The PKU & ME study: A qualitative exploration, through co-creative sessions, of attitudes and experience of the disease among adults with phenylketonuria in Italy

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    Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a hereditary metabolic disease that can be diagnosed and successfully treated from birth with a lifelong phenylalanine-restricted dietary regimen. However, optimal adherence to diet remains an issue and often progressively decreases after adolescence. The study aimed to explore the experience of adults living with PKU in order to gain insights related to their adherence to diet and engagement in managing their condition. Methods: The study adopted a qualitative methodology in sessions that combined specifically designed co- creation exercises with focus group discussion. Adults with early-treated classic PKU were enrolled for 2 different sessions - one for adherent and one for non-adherent patients. The verbatim notes of both sessions and focus group were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Twelve adherent and nine non-adherent adults with PKU participated. Besides the behavioral dictates of following a strict diet, adherent adults reported a positive mental approach and organizational rigor; they seemed aware of the consequences of high-phenylalanine levels, reporting that it can affect mood and conse- quently social interactions which they value highly. In the non-adherent group, the individuals seemed to not fully accept their disease: they were aware of the consequences of non-adherence in children but not in adults, they felt the management of PKU was an individual burden and they experienced a feeling of \u2018diversity\u2019 in the social context (related to eating) that caused emotional distress. PKU seemed a very influential element of the identity both for adherent and non-adherent adults, but with different consequences for the two groups. Finally, all participants reported the desire to be assisted in a healthcare setting dedicated to adults. Conclusions: The findings expand the understanding of the psychological experience of adult patients with PKU in relation to their disease and its dietary requirements, highlighting specific factors that might drive tailored educational or psychological intervention to improve adherence and engagement in the care process

    Equivalent-Circuit Models for the Design of Metamaterials Based on Artificial Magnetic Inclusions

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In this paper, we derive quasi-static equivalent-circuit models for the analysis and design of different types of artificial magnetic resonators-i.e., the multiple split-ring resonator, spiral resonator, and labyrinth resonator-which represent popular inclusions to synthesize artificial materials and metamaterials with anomalous values of the permeability in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequency ranges. The proposed models, derived in terms of RLC equivalent circuits, represent an extension of the models presented in a recent publication. In particular, the extended models take into account the presence of a dielectric substrate hosting the metallic inclusions and the losses due to the finite conductivity of the conductors and the finite resistivity of the dielectrics. Exploiting these circuit models, it is possible to accurately predict not only the resonant frequency of the individual inclusions, but also their quality factor and the relative permeability of metamaterial samples made by given arrangements of such inclusions. Finally, the three models have been tested against full-wave simulations and measurements, showing a good accuracy. This result opens the door to a quick and accurate design of the artificial magnetic inclusions to fabricate real-life metamaterial samples with anomalous values of the permeability
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