52 research outputs found

    Creating an integrated payment system: the evolution of Fedwire

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    Adapted from remarks given before the Seminar on Payment Systems in the European Union in Frankfurt, Germany, on February 27, 1997.Fedwire ; Electronic funds transfers ; Federal Reserve System

    The Impact of Source Credibility on Scientific Skepticism of Climate Change and Genetically Modified Foods: Findings from the General Social Survey

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    The current study explores the role of source credibility in continued public concern over climate change and GM foods, suggesting that this skepticism is more likely driven by perceptions of scientists as knowledgeable, trustworthy, and unbiased- the three primary constructs of source credibility (McCrosky & Teven, 1999; Teven 2008). We analyze data from the 2006 GSS survey to empirically measure the components of source credibility, comparing their influence and relationship to political ideology in perceptions of CC impacts and willingness to consume GM foods

    Criminal Geography and Geographical Profiling within Police Investigations – A Brief Introduction

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    Understanding the interaction between geography and crime has a long tradition throughout the world. If successfully deconstructed and understood, criminal geography can be used to help police strategically target increasingly scarce resources to prevent and reduce crime, as well as helping police investigators to locate and arrest serial offenders. Geographical Profiling (GP) or Geographical Offender Profiling (GOP), revolves around the premise that information regarding crime-related locations can be utilised and scrutinized to identify the most probable location from which a serial offender is based. Using purpose-built computerised decision support systems, underpinned by psycho-geographical theory and research derived from similar known offender spatial behaviours, police investigations can be assisted in many ways. Most notably, by plotting the known crime locations within a particular crime series, decision support systems are able to generate ‘hot-spot’ areas of high probability and priority. Importantly, this provides police investigators with actionable geographical information which can be used to direct resources towards a likely offender base location and thereby rapidly narrow down large suspect pools into a more manageable number. Contemporary police application of traditional GP methods are discussed

    The effects of Cold Preservation and Cryopreservation on th Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells in Dog Teeth

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    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cold preservation at 4oC and cryopreservation at -196oC on the viability of periodontal ligament cells in dog teeth using WST-1(4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]- 1,3-benzene disulfonate) assay. A total of 7 beagle dogs were used. Eight teeth of each group were divided into 7 experimental groups depending upon the preservation condition. The experimental groups were group 1 (immediate control), group 2-1 (cold preservation at 4oC for 3 days), group 2-2 (cold preservation at 4oC for 1 week), group 2-3 (cold preservation at 4oC for 2 week), group 3-1 (cryopreservation for 3 days), group 3-2 (cryopreservation for 1week), group 3-3 (cryopreservation for 2 weeks). F-medium and 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were used as preservation medium and cryoprotectant. For cryopreservation groups, thawing was performed in 37oC water bath, then WST-1 assay was processed. The values of optical density obtained by WST-1 were divided by the values of eosin staining for tissue volume standardization. In WST-1 assay, all cold preservation (4oC) groups (group 2, 3, 4) showed significantly higher viability of periodontal ligament cells than cryopreservation group (group 5, 6, 7) (p < 0.05), but showed lower viability than immediate control group (p < 0.05). In cold preservation (4oC) groups, group 2 showed significantly higher viability than group 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between all cryopreservation groups (-196oC). From the results of this study, cold preservation method suggests the better efficacy for short term preservation of the teeth than cryopreservationope

    Modified Needle-Tip PcrV Proteins Reveal Distinct Phenotypes Relevant to the Control of Type III Secretion and Intoxication by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is employed to deliver effector proteins to the cytosol of eukaryotic hosts by multiple species of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Translocation of effectors is dependent on the proteins encoded by the pcrGVHpopBD operon. These proteins form a T3S translocator complex, composed of a needle-tip complex (PcrV), translocons (PopB and PopD), and chaperones (PcrG and PcrH). PcrV mediates the folding and insertion of PopB/PopD in host plasmic membranes, where assembled translocons form a translocation channel. Assembly of this complex and delivery of effectors through this machinery is tightly controlled by PcrV, yet the multifunctional aspects of this molecule have not been defined. In addition, PcrV is a protective antigen for P. aeruginosa infection as is the ortholog, LcrV, for Yersinia. We constructed PcrV derivatives containing in-frame linker insertions and site-specific mutations. The expression of these derivatives was regulated by a T3S-specific promoter in a pcrV-null mutant of PA103. Nine derivatives disrupted the regulation of effector secretion and constitutively released an effector protein into growth medium. Three of these regulatory mutants, in which the linker was inserted in the N-terminal globular domain, were competent for the translocation of a cytotoxin, ExoU, into eukaryotic host cells. We also isolated strains expressing a delayed-toxicity phenotype, which secrete translocators slowly despite the normal level of effector secretion. Most of the cytotoxic translocation-competent strains retained the protective epitope of PcrV derivatives, and Mab166 was able to protect erythrocytes during infection with these strains. The use of defined PcrV derivatives possessing distinct phenotypes may lead to a better understanding of the functional aspects of T3 needle-tip proteins and the development of therapeutic agents or vaccines targeting T3SS-mediated intoxication

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74·0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24·8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26·1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23·8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51·2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38·0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81·7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1·75 [95% CI 1·28–2·40], p\textless0·0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2·30 [1·65–3·22], p\textless0·0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3–5 versus grades 1–2 (2·35 [1·57–3·53], p\textless0·0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1·55 [1·01–2·39], p=0·046), emergency versus elective surgery (1·67 [1·06–2·63], p=0·026), and major versus minor surgery (1·52 [1·01–2·31], p=0·047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research

    Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker initiation on organ support-free days in patients hospitalized with COVID-19

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    IMPORTANCE Overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) initiation improves outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In an ongoing, adaptive platform randomized clinical trial, 721 critically ill and 58 non–critically ill hospitalized adults were randomized to receive an RAS inhibitor or control between March 16, 2021, and February 25, 2022, at 69 sites in 7 countries (final follow-up on June 1, 2022). INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to receive open-label initiation of an ACE inhibitor (n = 257), ARB (n = 248), ARB in combination with DMX-200 (a chemokine receptor-2 inhibitor; n = 10), or no RAS inhibitor (control; n = 264) for up to 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was organ support–free days, a composite of hospital survival and days alive without cardiovascular or respiratory organ support through 21 days. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model. Odds ratios (ORs) greater than 1 represent improved outcomes. RESULTS On February 25, 2022, enrollment was discontinued due to safety concerns. Among 679 critically ill patients with available primary outcome data, the median age was 56 years and 239 participants (35.2%) were women. Median (IQR) organ support–free days among critically ill patients was 10 (–1 to 16) in the ACE inhibitor group (n = 231), 8 (–1 to 17) in the ARB group (n = 217), and 12 (0 to 17) in the control group (n = 231) (median adjusted odds ratios of 0.77 [95% bayesian credible interval, 0.58-1.06] for improvement for ACE inhibitor and 0.76 [95% credible interval, 0.56-1.05] for ARB compared with control). The posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitors and ARBs worsened organ support–free days compared with control were 94.9% and 95.4%, respectively. Hospital survival occurred in 166 of 231 critically ill participants (71.9%) in the ACE inhibitor group, 152 of 217 (70.0%) in the ARB group, and 182 of 231 (78.8%) in the control group (posterior probabilities that ACE inhibitor and ARB worsened hospital survival compared with control were 95.3% and 98.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, among critically ill adults with COVID-19, initiation of an ACE inhibitor or ARB did not improve, and likely worsened, clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0273570

    The Role of Scientific Source Credibility and Goodwill in Public Skepticism Toward GM Foods

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    The complex web of political-economic relations that constitutes biotechnology coupled with a contentious history of public resistance, illustrates the power of perceptions of credibility in mediating individuals’ judgements about GMOs. To more accurately measure what contributes to public skepticism of GM foods, the present research applies a multidimensional model of source credibility comprised of scientific understanding, integrity, agreement, concern, trust, and goodwill (bias). Testing the Anti-Reflexivity Thesis in a new context, we also explore the role of attitudes about science and economic innovation by analyzing associations between political ideology and beliefs about the potential impacts of GM foods. Using data from the Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel, we find evidence of politically polarized perceptions of GM scientists’ credibility and public beliefs about the environmental risks and benefits of GM foods. Results suggest that political ideology is indirectly associated with beliefs about GM impacts on the food supply, largely through perceptions of goodwill, the so-called “lost” dimension of source credibility. Because demand for biotechnology products like gene edited foods is expected to increase, consumer beliefs about GMOs will likely have significant implications for the future of the bioeconomy.This article is published as Hunt, K.P., Wald, D.M., The Role of Scientific Source Credibility and Goodwill in Public Skepticism Toward GM Foods. Environmental Communication, 2020, 14(7) 971–986; doi: 10.1080/17524032.2020.1725086. </p
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