308 research outputs found

    Dedicated versus mainstreaming approaches in local climate plans in Europe

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    Cities are gaining prominence committing to respond to the threat of climate change, e.g., by developing local climate plans or strategies. However, little is known regarding the approaches and processes of plan development and implementation, or the success and effectiveness of proposed measures. Mainstreaming is regarded as one approach associated with (implementation) success, but the extent of integration of local climate policies and plans in ongoing sectoral and/or development planning is unclear. This paper analyses 885 cities across the 28 European countries to create a first reference baseline on the degree of climate mainstreaming in local climate plans. This will help to compare the benefits of mainstreaming versus dedicated climate plans, looking at policy effectiveness and ultimately delivery of much needed climate change efforts at the city level. All core cities of the European Urban Audit sample were analyzed, and their local climate plans classified as dedicated or mainstreamed in other local policy initiatives. It was found that the degree of mainstreaming is low for mitigation (9% of reviewed cities; 12% of the identified plans) and somewhat higher for adaptation (10% of cities; 29% of plans). In particular horizontal mainstreaming is a major effort for local authorities; an effort that does not necessarily pay off in terms of success of action implementation. This study concludes that climate change issues in local municipalities are best tackled by either, developing a dedicated local climate plan in parallel to a mainstreamed plan or by subsequently developing first the dedicated and later a mainstreaming plan (joint or subsequent “dual track approach”). Cities that currently provide dedicated local climate plans (66% of cities for mitigation; 26% of cities for adaptation) may follow-up with a mainstreaming approach. This promises effective implementation of tangible climate actions as well as subsequent diffusion of climate issues into other local sector policies. The development of only broad sustainability or resilience strategies is seen as critical.We thank the many council representatives that supported the datacollection. Special thanks to Birgit Georgi who helped in setting up this large net work of researchers across the EU-28. We also thank the EU COST Action TU 0902 (ledbyRichardDawson) that established the core research network and the positive engagement and interaction of th emembers of this group. OH is Fellow of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and was funded by the UK EPSRC LC Transforms: Low Carbon Transitions of Fleet Operations in Metropolitan Sites Project (grant number EP/N010612/1). EKL was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, Czechia, within the National Sustainability Program I (NPU I) (grant number LO1415). DG ac-knowledges support by the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR), Italy ("Departments of Excellence" grant L. 232/2016). HO was supported by the Ministry of Education and Research, Estonia (grantnumberIUT34-17). MO acknowledges funding from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO), Spain (grant number IJCI-2016-28835). SS acknowledges that CENSE's research is partially funded by the Science Foundation, Portugal (grant number UID/AMB/04085/2019). The paper reflects only the views of the authors. The European Union, the European Environment Agency or other supporting bodies are not liable for any use that may be made of the information that is provided in this manuscript

    N-nonyloxypentyl-l-deoxynojirimycin inhibits growth, biofilm formation and virulence factors expression of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of hospital-and community-associated bacterial infections throughout the world, which are difficult to treat due to the rising number of drug-resistant strains. New molecules displaying potent activity against this bacterium are urgently needed. In this study, d-and l-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and a small library of their N-alkyl derivatives were screened against S. aureus ATCC 29213, with the aim to identify novel candidates with inhibitory potential. Among them, N-nonyloxypentyl-l-DNJ (l-NPDNJ) proved to be the most active compound against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and its clinical isolates, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 128 µg/mL. l-NPDNJ also displayed an additive effect with gentamicin and oxacillin against the gentamicin-and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate 00717. Sub-MIC values of l-NPDNJ affected S. aureus biofilm development in a dose-dependent manner, inducing a strong reduction in biofilm biomass. Moreover, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that l-NPDNJ effectively inhibited at sub-MIC values the transcription of the spa, hla, hlb and sea virulence genes, as well as the agrA and saeR response regulator genes

    A pilot randomised controlled trial investigating a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): the PATHWAYS study

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    Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an uncommon condition with progressive heart failure and premature death. Treatment costs up to £120,000 per patient per year, and the psychological burden of PAH is substantial. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an intervention with the potential to reduce this burden, but to date, it has not been applied to people with pulmonary hypertension. We wished to determine whether a trial of MBSR for people with PAH would be feasible. Methods: A customised gentle MBSR programme of eight sessions was developed for people with physical disability due to PAH, and they were randomised to group-based MBSR or treatment as usual. The completeness of outcome measures including Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Inventory and standard physical assessment at 3 months after randomisation were recorded. Health care utilisation was measured. Attendance at the sessions and the costs involved in delivering the intervention were assessed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the acceptability of the MBSR intervention and when appropriate the reasons for trial non-participation. Results: Fifty-two patients were recruited, but only 34 were randomised due to patients finding it difficult to travel to sessions. Twenty-two completed all questionnaires and attended all clinics, both routine and additional in order to collect outcomes measures. The MSBR sessions were delivered in Bristol, Cardiff and London, costing, on average, between £2234 (Cardiff) and £4128 (London) per patient to deliver. Attendance at each session averaged between two patients in Bristol and Cardiff and three in London. For those receiving treatment as usual, clinician blinding was achievable. Interviews revealed that people who attended MBSR found it interesting and helpful in managing their symptoms and minimising the psychological component of their disease. Conclusions: We found that attendance at group MBSR was poor in people with chronic PAH within the context of a trial. Achieving better MBSR intervention attendance or use of an Internet-based programme might maximise the benefit of MBSR

    Acute pressure overload of the right ventricle. Comparison of two models of right-left shunt. Pulmonary artery to left atrium and right atrium to left atrium: experimental study

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    <p>Abtract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In right ventricular failure (RVF), an interatrial shunt can relieve symptoms of severe pulmonary hypertension by reducing right ventricular preload and increasing systemic flow. Using a pig model to determine if a pulmonary artery - left atrium shunt (PA-LA) is better than a right atrial - left atrial shunt (RA-LA), we compared the hemodynamic effects and blood gases between the two shunts.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Thirty, male Large White pigs weighting in average 21.3 kg ± 0.7 (SEM) were divided into two groups (15 pigs per group): In group 1, banding of the pulmonary artery and a pulmonary artery to left atrium shunt with an 8 mm graft (PA-LA) was performed and in group 2 banding of the pulmonary artery and right atrial to left atrial shunt (RA-LA) with a similar graft was performed. Hemodynamic parameters and blood gases were measured from all cardiac chambers in 10 and 20 minutes, half and one hour interval from the baseline (30 min from the banding). Cardiac output and flow of at the left anterior descending artery was also monitored.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In both groups, a stable RVF was generated. The PA-LA shunt compared to the RA-LA shunt has better hemodynamic performance concerning the decreased right ventricle afterload, the 4 fold higher mean pressure of the shunt, the better flow in left anterior descending artery and the decreased systemic vascular resistance. Favorable to the PA-LA shunt is also the tendency - although not statistically significant - in relation to central venous pressure, left atrial filling and cardiac output.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The PA-LA shunt can effectively reverse the catastrophic effects of acute RVF offering better hemodynamic characteristics than an interatrial shunt.</p