944 research outputs found

    Wii-Fit for Improving Gait and Balance in an Assisted Living Facility: A Pilot Study

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    Objectives. To determine the effects on balance and gait of a Wii-Fit program compared to a walking program in subjects with mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Methods. A prospective randomized (1 : 1) pilot study with two intervention arms was conducted in an assisted living facility with twenty-two mild AD subjects. In both groups the intervention occurred under supervision for 30 minutes daily, five times a week for eight weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyze changes. Results. Both groups showed improvement in Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Tinetti Test (TT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) over 8 weeks. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups over time. Intragroup analysis in the Wii-Fit group showed significant improvement on BBS (P = 0.003), and TT (P = 0.013). The walking group showed a trend towards improvement on BBS (P = 0.06) and TUG (P = 0.07) and significant improvement in TT (P = 0.06). Conclusion. This pilot study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of Wii-Fit in an assisted living facility in subjects with mild AD. Use of Wii-Fit resulted in significant improvements in balance and gait comparable to those in the robust monitored walking program. These results need to be confirmed in a larger, methodologically sound study

    How entry crowds and grows markets: the gradual disaster management view of market dynamics in the retail industry

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    Entrepreneurial, innovative entry can have devastating effects disrupting a market. However, the many players involved including all current producers, sellers and suppliers and the often non-technological but organizational nature of the innovation may lead to a gradual restoration of the market, viz., to a new equilibrium. Entrepreneurial entry can be regarded as a disaster while the restoration towards a new equilibrium as disaster management. Hardly any empirical models have been developed in order to test these ideas. This paper conducts the first empirical dynamic simultaneous equilibrium analysis of the role of entry and exit of firms, the number of firms in an industry, and profit levels in industry dynamics. Our model enables to discriminate between the entrants’ entrepreneurial function of creating disequilibrium and their conventional role of moving the industry to a new equilibrium. Using a rich data set of the retail industry, we find that indeed entrants perform an entrepreneurial function causing long periods of disequilibrium after which a new equilibrium is attained. Notably, shocks to the entry rate have permanent effects on the industry, emphasizing the entrepreneurial function of entrants rather than their passive reactive function as postulated in classical economics

    Association between adenoma location and risk of recurrence

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    The biological environment varies across the colorectum and may therefore differently affect neoplastic growth in the proximal and distal colon. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk for recurrent adenomas and their anatomic location based on adenoma location at baseline colonoscopy

    Calibrating Convective properties of Solar-like Stars in the Kepler Field of View

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    Stellar models generally use simple parametrizations to treat convection. The most widely used parametrization is the so-called "Mixing Length Theory" where the convective eddy sizes are described using a single number, \alpha, the mixing-length parameter. This is a free parameter, and the general practice is to calibrate \alpha using the known properties of the Sun and apply that to all stars. Using data from NASA's Kepler mission we show that using the solar-calibrated \alpha is not always appropriate, and that in many cases it would lead to estimates of initial helium abundances that are lower than the primordial helium abundance. Kepler data allow us to calibrate \alpha for many other stars and we show that for the sample of stars we have studied, the mixing-length parameter is generally lower than the solar value. We studied the correlation between \alpha and stellar properties, and we find that \alpha increases with metallicity. We therefore conclude that results obtained by fitting stellar models or by using population-synthesis models constructed with solar values of \alpha are likely to have large systematic errors. Our results also confirm theoretical expectations that the mixing-length parameter should vary with stellar properties.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

    The Association of Age and Race and the Risk of Large Bowel Polyps

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    Blacks have a higher incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a younger age at diagnosis compared to Whites. Few studies have investigated racial differences in risk of metachronous adenomas and serrated polyps whether this risk differs by polyp characteristics or age of patient

    Fundamental Properties of Kepler Planet-Candidate Host Stars using Asteroseismology

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    We have used asteroseismology to determine fundamental properties for 66 Kepler planet-candidate host stars, with typical uncertainties of 3% and 7% in radius and mass, respectively. The results include new asteroseismic solutions for four host stars with confirmed planets (Kepler-4, Kepler-14, Kepler-23 and Kepler-25) and increase the total number of Kepler host stars with asteroseismic solutions to 77. A comparison with stellar properties in the planet-candidate catalog by Batalha et al. shows that radii for subgiants and giants obtained from spectroscopic follow-up are systematically too low by up to a factor of 1.5, while the properties for unevolved stars are in good agreement. We furthermore apply asteroseismology to confirm that a large majority of cool main-sequence hosts are indeed dwarfs and not misclassified giants. Using the revised stellar properties, we recalculate the radii for 107 planet candidates in our sample, and comment on candidates for which the radii change from a previously giant-planet/brown-dwarf/stellar regime to a sub-Jupiter size, or vice versa. A comparison of stellar densities from asteroseismology with densities derived from transit models in Batalha et al. assuming circular orbits shows significant disagreement for more than half of the sample due to systematics in the modeled impact parameters, or due to planet candidates which may be in eccentric orbits. Finally, we investigate tentative correlations between host-star masses and planet candidate radii, orbital periods, and multiplicity, but caution that these results may be influenced by the small sample size and detection biases.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables; accepted for publication in ApJ; machine-readable versions of tables 1-3 are available as ancillary files or in the source code; v2: minor changes to match published versio

    Factors Associated With Shorter Colonoscopy Surveillance Intervals for Patients With Low-Risk Colorectal Adenomas and Effects on Outcome

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    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopists do not routinely follow guidelines to survey individuals with low-risk adenomas (LRAs; 1-2 small tubular adenomas, < 1 cm) every 5-10 years for colorectal cancer; many recommend shorter surveillance intervals for these individuals. We aimed to identify the reasons that endoscopists recommend shorter surveillance intervals for some individuals with LRAs and determine whether timing affects outcomes at follow-up examinations. METHODS: We collected data from 1560 individuals (45-75 years old) who participated in a prospective chemoprevention trial (of vitamin D and calcium) from 2004 through 2008. Participants in the trial had at least 1 adenoma, detected at their index colonoscopy, and were recommended to receive follow-up colonoscopy examinations at 3 or 5 years after adenoma identification, as recommended by the endoscopist. For this analysis we collected data from only participants with LRAs. These data included characteristics of participants and endoscopists and findings from index and follow-up colonoscopies. Primary endpoints were frequency of recommending shorter (3-year) vs longer (5-year) surveillance intervals, factors associated with these recommendations, and effect on outcome, determined at the follow-up colonoscopy. RESULTS: A 3-year surveillance interval was recommended for 594 of the subjects (38.1%). Factors most significantly associated with recommendation of 3-year vs a 5-year surveillance interval included African American race (relative risk [RR] to white, 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.75), Asian/Pacific Islander ethnicity (RR to white, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.22-2.43), detection of 2 adenomas at the index examination (RR vs 1 adenoma, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71), more than 3 serrated polyps at the index examination (RR=2.16, 95% CI, 1.59-2.93), or index examination with fair or poor quality bowel preparation (RR vs excellent quality, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.66-2.83). Other factors that had a significant association with recommendation for a 3-year surveillance interval included family history of colorectal cancer and detection of 1-2 serrated polyps at the index examination. In comparisons of outcomes, we found no significant differences between the 3-year vs 5-year recommendation groups in proportions of subjects found to have 1 or more adenomas (38.8% vs 41.7% respectively; P = .27), advanced adenomas (7.7% vs 8.2%; P = .73) or clinically significant serrated polyps (10.0% vs 10.3%; P = .82) at the follow-up colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Possibly influenced by patients' family history, race, quality of bowel preparation, or number or size of polyps, endoscopists frequently recommend 3-year surveillance intervals instead of guideline-recommended intervals of 5 years or longer for individuals with LRAs. However, at the follow-up colonoscopy, similar proportions of participants have 1 or more adenomas, advanced adenomas, or serrated polyps. These findings support the current guideline recommendations of performing follow-up examinations of individuals with LRAs at least 5 years after the index colonoscopy

    A growing global network’s role in outbreak response: AFHSC-GEIS 2008-2009

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    A cornerstone of effective disease surveillance programs comprises the early identification of infectious threats and the subsequent rapid response to prevent further spread. Effectively identifying, tracking and responding to these threats is often difficult and requires international cooperation due to the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by humans and animals. From Oct.1, 2008 to Sept. 30, 2009, the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) identified 76 outbreaks in 53 countries. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks were identified by the global network and included a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners, several of which were in direct support of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005). The network also supported military forces around the world affected by the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic of 2009. With IHR (2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats