73 research outputs found

    Work to Live or Live to Work? Unemployment, Happiness, and Culture

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    Happiness drops when individuals become unemployed. The negative impact of the unemployment shock, however, may differ by cultural background. To test the hypothesis of a 'Teutonic work ethic', this paper takes advantage of Switzerland in its cultural diversity. By comparing different cultural groups in the same institutional setting, I empirically test whether such deep psychological traits have an influence on how unemployment is perceived. It is found that unemployment has a significantly negative effect on life satisfaction in Switzerland. I furthermore present evidence which confirms to some extent the hypothesis that Swiss German individuals suffer more from unemployment, although for the most part, these results are without statistical significance. Swiss Germans are additionally found to be happier than their French-speaking compatriots – independent of whether they are unemployed. This difference between Romanic and Germanic cultural backgrounds is in line with previous findings, but deserves further research attention.life satisfaction, unemployment, cultural differences, Switzerland

    Reservation Wages of First and Second Generation Migrants

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    This paper analyzes the reservation wages of first and second generation migrants. Based on recently collected and rich survey data of a representative inflow sample into unemployment in Germany, we empirically test the hypothesis that reservation wages increase from first to second generation migrants. Two extensions of the basic job search model, namely an unknown wage offer distribution and different reference standards, provide theoretical justifications for this conjecture. In both extensions, changing frames of reference are identified as a channel through which the phenomenon of increasing reservation wages may arise. In as far as language skills or self-evaluated returns to characteristics reflect a person's frames of reference, we find empirical support for this mechanism to be present.Migration, Ethnic Identity, Ethnosizer, Germany, Unemployment, Job Search, Reservation Wages

    Reservation Wages of First and Second Generation Migrants

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    This paper analyzes the reservation wages of first and second generation migrants. Based on recently collected and rich survey data of a representative inflow sample into unemployment in Germany, we empirically test the hypothesis that reservation wages increase from first to second generation migrants. Two extensions of the basic job search model, namely an unknown wage offer distribution and different reference standards, provide theoretical justifications for this conjecture. In both extensions, changing frames of reference are identified as a channel through which the phenomenon of increasing reservation wages may arise. In as far as language skills or self-evaluated returns to characteristics reflect a person's frames of reference, we find empirical support for this mechanism to be present.migration, ethnic identity, ethnosizer, Germany, unemployment, job search, reservation wages

    Economic Preferences and Attitudes of the Unemployed: Are Natives and Second Generation Migrants Alike?

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    In this paper we study the economic effects of risk attitudes, time preferences, trust and reciprocity while we compare natives and second generation migrants. We analyze an inflow sample into unemployment in Germany, and find differences between the two groups mainly in terms of risk attitudes and positive reciprocity. Second generation migrants have a significantly higher willingness to take risks and they are less likely to have a low amount of positive reciprocity when compared to natives. We also find that these differences matter in terms of economic outcomes, and more specifically in terms of the employment probability about two months after unemployment entry. We observe a significantly lower employment probability for individuals with a high willingness to take risks. Some evidence suggests that this result is channeled through reservation wages and search intensity.Unemployment, Migration, Personality Traits, Risk Attitudes, Time Preferences, Trust, Reciprocity

    Economic Preferences and Attitudes of the Unemployed: Are Natives and Second Generation Migrants Alike?

    Get PDF
    In this paper we study the economic effects of risk attitudes, time preferences, trust and reciprocity while we compare natives and second generation migrants. We analyze an inflow sample into unemployment in Germany, and find differences between the two groups mainly in terms of risk attitudes and positive reciprocity. Second generation migrants have a significantly higher willingness to take risks and they are less likely to have a low amount of positive reciprocity when compared to natives. We also find that these differences matter in terms of economic outcomes, and more specifically in terms of the employment probability about two months after unemployment entry. We observe a significantly lower employment probability for individuals with a high willingness to take risks. Some evidence suggests that this result is channeled through reservation wages and search intensity.unemployment, migration, personality traits, risk attitudes, time preferences, trust, reciprocity

    Minimum income support systems as elements of crisis resilience in Europe: Final Report

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    Mindestsicherungssysteme dienen in den meisten entwickelten Wohlfahrtsstaaten als Sicherheitsnetz letzter Instanz. Dementsprechend spielen sie gerade in wirtschaftlichen Krisenzeiten eine besondere Rolle. Inwieweit Mindestsicherungssysteme in Zeiten der Krise beansprucht werden, hängt auch von der Ausprägung vorgelagerter Sozialschutzsysteme ab. Diese Studie untersucht die Bedeutung von Systemen der Mindestsicherung sowie vorgelagerter Systeme wie Arbeitslosenversicherung, Kurzarbeit und arbeitsrechtlichem Bestandsschutz für die Krisenfestigkeit in Europa. Im Kontext der Finanzkrise von 2008/2009 und der Corona-Krise wird die Fähigkeit sozialpolitischer Maßnahmen untersucht, Armut und Einkommens­verluste einzudämmen und gesellschaftliche Ausgrenzung zu vermeiden. Die Studie setzt dabei auf quantitative und qualitative Methoden, etwa multivariate Analysen, Mikrosimulationsmethoden sowie eingehende Fallstudien der Länder Dänemark, Frankreich, Irland, Polen und Spanien, die für unterschiedliche Typen von Wohlfahrtsstaaten stehen.The aim of this study is to analyse the role of social policies in different European welfare states regarding minimum income protection and active inclusion. The core focus lies on crisis resilience, i.e. the capacity of social policy arrangements to contain poverty and inequality and avoid exclusion before, during and after periods of economic shocks. To achieve this goal, the study expands its analytical focus to include other tiers of social protection, in particular upstream systems such as unemployment insurance, job retention and employment protection, as they play an additional and potentially prominent role in providing income and job protection in situations of crisis. A mixed-method approach is used that combines quantitative and qualitative research, such as descriptive and multivariate quantitative analyses, microsimulation methods and in-depth case studies. The study finds consistent differences in terms of crisis resilience across countries and welfare state types. In general, Nordic and Continental European welfare states with strong upstream systems and minimum income support (MIS) show better outcomes in core socio-economic outcomes such as poverty and exclusion risks. However, labour market integration shows some dualisms in Continental Europe. The study shows that MIS holds particular importance if there are gaps in upstream systems or cases of severe and lasting crises

    Arbeitssituation und Belastungsempfinden im Kontext der Corona-Pandemie im März 2021: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung von abhängig Beschäftigten; Expertise

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    Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung von abhängig Beschäftigten im März 2021 vor. Eine der Auswirkungen der Corona-Pandemie ist, dass sich die Arbeitssituation für viele Beschäftigte spürbar verändert hat. Vor diesem Hintergrund ermittelt diese Forschungsreihe aktuelle Lagebilder der Arbeitssituation der abhängig Beschäftigten seit Februar 2021. Inhaltliche Schwerpunkte sind die Verbreitung von Homeoffice, die Veränderungen der Arbeitssituation durch die Corona-Arbeitsschutzverordnung, Corona-Testangebote im Arbeitskontext, das von den Beschäftigten empfundene Ansteckungsrisiko am Arbeitsplatz sowie ihr allgemeines Belastungsempfinden.This report provides an up-to-date picture of the work situation of dependent employees under the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2021. The current study continues a comparable cross-sectional study of the work situation in February 2021. Results focus on the prevalence of working from home, changes in the work situation due to the SARS-CoV-2 Occupational Health and Safety Ordinance, the provision of COVID-19 tests by employers, the risk of infection at the workplace as perceived by employees, and their general perception of stress. An additional focus is on the situation of families with children, for whom particular burdens and conflicts may arise between work and family obligations as a result of COVID-19 protection measures

    Machbarkeitsstudie für eine Untersuchung der sozialen Lage von Selbstständigen

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    Die Expertise analysiert im Sinne einer Machbarkeitsstudie, wie ein zielführendes und wirtschaftliches Design für eine empirische Untersuchung der sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Lage von Selbstständigen in Deutschland aussehen könnte. Sie arbeitet die Vorteile der Anlage einer spezifischen Datenbasis gegenüber der Nutzung vorhandener Datenquellen heraus und erörtert die Möglichkeiten der praktischen Umsetzung einer Querschnittsbefragung, insbesondere Feldzugang und Stichprobendesign, sowie Fragenprogramm und Erhebungsmodus

    Arbeitssituation und Belastungsempfinden im Kontext der Corona-Pandemie im September 2021: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung von abhängig Beschäftigten

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    Diese Expertise ermittelt ein aktuelles repräsentatives Lagebild zur Arbeitssituation der abhängig Beschäftigten in Deutschland unter den Bedingungen der Corona-Pandemie im September 2021. Die aktuelle Untersuchung führt vergleichbare Querschnittserhebungen zur Arbeitssituation fort, die seit Februar 2021 durchgeführt wurden. Inhaltliche Schwerpunkte sind die Verbreitung von Homeoffice, Fortschritt der Corona-Schutzimpfungen bei den Beschäftigten, die Verbreitung von Corona-Tests und deren Nutzung, Arbeitsschutzmaßnahmen und deren Perspektive (auch vor dem Hintergrund des Impffortschritts), das von den Beschäftigten empfundene Ansteckungsrisiko am Arbeitsplatz und ihr allgemeines Belastungsempfinden, sowie ein Vergleich ihres aktuellen Arbeitsalltags mit der Situation vor dem Ausbruch der Corona-Pandemie.This report provides an up-to-date representative picture of the working situation of dependent employees in Germany under the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2021. The current study continues comparable cross-sectional surveys on the working situation that have been conducted since February 2021. Results focus on the prevalence of working from home, the work environment at home, new workplace concepts, the progress of COVID-19 vaccinations among employees, the prevalence and use of COVID-19 testing, occupational health and safety measures and their prospects (also against the background of vaccination progress), the risk of infection at the workplace as perceived by employees and their general perception of stress, as well as a comparison of their current working situation with the situation before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic

    Verbreitung von Homeoffice und Corona-Tests der Arbeitgeber Ende März-Anfang April 2021: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Befragung von abhängig Beschäftigten; Expertise

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    Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt die Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Sonderbefragung von abhängig Beschäftigten Ende März-Anfang April 2021 vor. Eine der Auswirkungen der Corona-Pandemie ist, dass sich die Arbeitssituation für viele Beschäftigte spürbar verändert hat. Vor diesem Hintergrund ermittelt diese Forschungsreihe aktuelle Lagebilder der Arbeitssituation der abhängig Beschäftigten seit Februar 2021. Inhaltliche Schwerpunkte sind die Verbreitung von Homeoffice, die Veränderungen der Arbeitssituation durch die Corona-Arbeitsschutzverordnung, Corona-Testangebote im Arbeitskontext, das von den Beschäftigten empfundene Ansteckungsrisiko am Arbeitsplatz sowie ihr allgemeines Belastungsempfinden.This study provides an up-to-date picture of the work situation of dependent employees in Germany under the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic during the period from late March to early April 2021. It continues two comparable cross-sectional surveys of conditions at the workplace that have been conducted in mid-February and mid-March 2021. The current study focuses on the prevalence of working from home and on employer provision and uptake of COVID-19 testing
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