8,192 research outputs found

    Investigating the influence of music training on verbal memory

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    Previous research has shown that musical training is associated with enhanced verbal memory. The current study investigated the generality of this association by presenting undergraduates who had received musical training (n = 20) and undergraduates with no formal music training (n = 20) with four types of word list; high visual imagery, high auditory imagery, high tactile imagery, and abstract. Those who had received music training showed enhanced memory for all word lists, suggesting that music training leads to a general enhancement in verbal memory that is not restricted to specific types of words (e.g., those invoking auditory imagery). The findings support previous research in showing that music training enhances cognitive skills beyond those that are specific to the domain of music. The possible cognitive and neural factors underpinning this effect are discussed

    Short-Term Orchestral Music Training Modulates Hyperactivity and Inhibitory Control in School-Age Children: A Longitudinal Behavioural Study

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    Survey studies have shown that participating in music groups produces several beneïŹts, such as discipline, cooperation and responsibility. Accordingly, recent longitudinal studies showed that orchestral music training has a positive impact on inhibitory control in school-age children. However, most of these studies examined long periods of training not always feasible for all families and institutions and focused on children’s measures ignoring the viewpoint of the teachers. Considering the crucial role of inhibitory control on hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, we wanted to explore if short orchestral music training would promote a reduction of these impulsive behaviors in children. This study involved 113 Italian children from 8 to 10 years of age. 55 of them attended 3 months of orchestral music training. The training included a 2-hour lesson per week at school and a ïŹnal concert. The 58 children in the control group did not have any orchestral music training. All children were administered tests and questionnaires measuring inhibitory control and hyperactivity near the beginning and end of the 3-month training period. We also collected information regarding the levels of hyperactivity of the children as perceived by the teachers at both time points. Children in the music group showed a signiïŹcant improvement in inhibitory control. Moreover, in the second measurement the control group showed an increase in self-reported hyperactivity that was not found in the group undergoing the music training program. This change was not noticed by the teachers, implying a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behavior at school. Our results suggest that even an intense and brief period of orchestral music training is sufïŹcient to facilitate the development of inhibitory control by modulating the levels of self-reported hyperactivity. This research has implications for music pedagogy and education especially in children with high hyperactivity. Future investigations will test whether the ïŹndings can be extended to children diagnosed with ADHD

    Assessing intonation skills in a tertiary music training programme

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    [Abstract]: Buttsworth, Fogarty, and Rorke (1993) reported the construction of a battery of tonal tests designed to assess intonation abilities. A subset of the tests in the battery predicted 36 per cent of final scores in an aural training subject in a tertiary music course. In the current study, the original battery of fourteen tests was reduced to six tests and administered three times throughout the academic year to a new sample (N = 87) of tertiary music students. Three research questions were investigated. Firstly, it was hypothesised that tests in the battery would discriminate among the different aural classes at USQ, which were grouped according to ability level. The results from discriminant function analyses provided strong support for this hypothesis. Secondly, it was hypothesised that students should improve their performance on the pitch battery across the three administrations. A repeated measures analysis of variance failed to find evidence of overall improvement. Finally, it was hypothesised that there would be significant differences on the intonation tests between musicians of different instrumental families. Again, no overall differences were found. The results indicated that intonation tests appear to tap an ability that (a) is not significantly modified by training, (b) is more or less the same across different instrument families, and (c) is related to success in music training programmes

    Music Training and Cognitive Function

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    Music training is defined as the instruction on a musical instrument, and it requires the simultaneous use of several cognitive functions: perception, memory, attention, and learning, in particular. I set out to determine if any associations exist between music training and increased cognitive function. After extensive research on various topics, I discovered that there are several significant associations between cognition and music training. Dementia, as well as other cognitive impairments, were shown to occur less in individuals that participated in music training. Attention, working memory, and intelligence showed significant positive associations with music training. Also, music training can also be used to predict reading ability in children. Finally, I found that music training is positively associated with development in children

    Review of the Literature: Can Music Training Improve Memory?

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    Music training typically starts at an early age when the brain is most receptive to plastic changes. Musicians practice countless hours in an extended amount of time to master their music-making abilities, making them an excellent model to study brain plasticity. Yet, the specific mechanisms that bring about changes following music training are unclear. Though the “Mozart effect” myth has been rejected by numerous researchers, the myth that music training will increase intelligence is still embraced by many teachers, parents and even policy-makers in the education system. In addition, an increasing number of studies now suggest that music training is likely associated with improvements in other areas that are not related to the training itself, such as visual memory. In this review, I evaluate the merits of three studies that drew competing conclusions on the effects of music training on memory to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying challenges in this field of research. I argue that the extent to which music training extends to other realms outside of the musically relevant skills remains subject to question. Therefore, policy-makers, educators and parents must be prudent when introducing children to music training in hopes of improving their far-transfer skills such as linguistic abilities, social skills and general intelligence

    Practicing a Musical Instrument in Childhood is Associated with Enhanced Verbal Ability and Nonverbal Reasoning

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    Background: In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Methodology/Principal Findings: Children who received at least three years (M = 4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. Conclusions/Significance: While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverba

    Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

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    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment are not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pre-training) and again three years later. Here we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence, and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes

    Basic Filters for Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to Music: Training or Design?

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    When convolutional neural networks are used to tackle learning problems based on music or, more generally, time series data, raw one-dimensional data are commonly pre-processed to obtain spectrogram or mel-spectrogram coefficients, which are then used as input to the actual neural network. In this contribution, we investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the influence of this pre-processing step on the network's performance and pose the question, whether replacing it by applying adaptive or learned filters directly to the raw data, can improve learning success. The theoretical results show that approximately reproducing mel-spectrogram coefficients by applying adaptive filters and subsequent time-averaging is in principle possible. We also conducted extensive experimental work on the task of singing voice detection in music. The results of these experiments show that for classification based on Convolutional Neural Networks the features obtained from adaptive filter banks followed by time-averaging perform better than the canonical Fourier-transform-based mel-spectrogram coefficients. Alternative adaptive approaches with center frequencies or time-averaging lengths learned from training data perform equally well.Comment: Completely revised version; 21 pages, 4 figure

    Does music training enhance auditory and linguistic processing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral and brain evidence

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    It is often claimed that music training improves auditory and linguistic skills. Results of individual studies are mixed, however, and most evidence is correlational, precluding inferences of causation. Here, we evaluated data from 62 longitudinal studies that examined whether music training programs affect behavioral and brain measures of auditory and linguistic processing (N = 3928). For the behavioral data, a multivariate meta-analysis revealed a small positive effect of music training on both auditory and linguistic measures, regardless of the type of assignment (random vs. non-random), training (instrumental vs. non-instrumental), and control group (active vs. passive). The trim-and-fill method provided suggestive evidence of publication bias, but meta-regression methods (PET-PEESE) did not. For the brain data, a narrative synthesis also documented benefits of music training, namely for measures of auditory processing and for measures of speech and prosody processing. Thus, the available literature provides evidence that music training produces small neurobehavioral enhancements in auditory and linguistic processing, although future studies are needed to confirm that such enhancements are not due to publication bias.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Enhanced Recognition of Vocal Emotions in Individuals With Naturally Good Musical Abilities

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    Music training is widely assumed to enhance several nonmusical abilities, including speech perception, executive functions, reading, and emotion recognition. This assumption is based primarily on cross-sectional comparisons between musicians and nonmusicians. It remains unclear, however, whether training itself is necessary to explain the musician advantages, or whether factors such as innate predispositions and informal musical experience could produce similar effects. Here, we sought to clarify this issue by examining the association between music training, music perception abilities and vocal emotion recognition. The sample (N = 169) comprised musically trained and untrained listeners who varied widely in their musical skills, as assessed through self-report and performance-based measures. The emotion recognition tasks required listeners to categorize emotions in nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughter, crying) and in speech prosody. Music training was associated positively with emotion recognition across tasks, but the effect was small. We also found a positive association between music perception abilities and emotion recognition in the entire sample, even with music training held constant. In fact, untrained participants with good musical abilities were as good as highly trained musicians at recognizing vocal emotions. Moreover, the association between music training and emotion recognition was fully mediated by auditory and music perception skills. Thus, in the absence of formal music training, individuals who were “naturally” musical showed musician-like performance at recognizing vocal emotions. These findings highlight an important role for factors other than music training (e.g., predispositions and informal musical experience) in associations between musical and nonmusical domains. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved