Location of Repository

How Untrained Teachers Develop Their Teaching Skills and Perceive Themselves as Second Language Teachers – A Case Study in Malaysia

By Rosaline Eu

Abstract

This thesis investigates how teachers who are non-native English speakers and who do not have the necessary qualifications for the Teaching of English as a Second Language manage with their work at a private language centre in Malaysia. The three research questions that helped guide the study are: (1) What strategies do such teachers adopt when planning their lessons? (2) How do institutional support mechanisms, both formal and informal, enable their work, and (3) How do they construct their professional identity? \ud As the aim was to explore how the teachers learn to teach English as a Second Language (ESL) in the absence of a traditional teaching qualification, the study focused on an alternative pathway through a socio-cultural approach to enable teachers to gain pedagogical knowledge as they build their professional identity in the process. \ud The aims of the study and the research questions meant that its design necessitated a qualitative approach within an interpretivist paradigm. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, classroom observations and documentary analysis with seventeen teachers at the language centre. In this case study approach, the teachers were the individual cases. The data were analysed using inductive analysis to form themes. The findings concluded that the nurturing school environment and culture supported teachers’ learning and knowledge construction which stemmed from the leadership and management policies that were grounded in educational research and values. \ud The study offers a set of facilitative conditions for the development of untrained teachers which emanated from the teachers’ perspectives about their experiences and their decision-making as they progressed from the novice stage to being competent teachers in adopting lesson planning strategies. The critical role of the institutional culture and continuing professional support system is highlighted in enabling them to develop their teaching skills and thus, the development of their sense of teacher identity

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/27570

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2010a) Classroom-level curriculum development: EFL teachers as curriculum-developers, curriculum-makers and curriculum-transmitters,
  2. (2010b) Classroom-level teacher professional development and satisfaction: teachers learn in the context of classroom-level curriculum development,
  3. (1996). (Eds.) Teaching learning in language teaching,
  4. (1994). A Beginning Teacher’s Search for Meaning: Teacher Socialization, organization literacy, and empowerment,
  5. (1984). A constructivist approach to staff development,
  6. (1989). A developmental view of classroom observations,
  7. (1990). A language in decline? English Today:
  8. (2004). A passion for teaching,
  9. (2002). A systemic approach to professional development: learning as practice,
  10. (2009). Action Research in second language teacher education, In
  11. (2006). An Exploratory study of the Interplay between Teachers’ beliefs,
  12. (1975). An introduction to curriculum research and development
  13. (1996). Analysis and use of qualitative data.
  14. (1996). Analyzing social settings (3rd ed.),
  15. (2001). Anticipatory reflection while learning to teach: From a temporally truncated to a temporally distributed model of reflection
  16. (1999). Applying educational research: A practical guide
  17. (1984). Artistry in teaching: The teacher as a focus of research and development, In
  18. (2002). Atlas.ti for qualitative data analysis,
  19. (1949). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction,
  20. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research,
  21. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory,
  22. (2001). Becoming a student of teaching. Linking knowledge production and practice
  23. (2002). Becoming, being and unbecoming an early childhood educator: a phenomenological case study of teacher attrition,
  24. (1992). Beginning Teacher Curriculum Decision Making,
  25. (1988). Cognition in Practice, Cambridge:
  26. (1992). Cognitive apprenticeship,
  27. (1993). Cognitive development (3rd ed.),
  28. (1998). Collaborative inquiry among novice teachers as professional development: Sustaining habits of heart and mind,
  29. (2004). Collaborative professional learning: from theory to practice,
  30. (1998). Communities of Practice. Learning, meaning and identity, Cambridge:
  31. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities,
  32. (1987). Constructing knowledge in school,
  33. (1994). Constructivism and teachers’ professional development,
  34. (2006). Contexts which shape and reshape new teachers’ identities: A multi-perspective study,
  35. (2008). Counternarratives: studies of teacher education and becoming and being a teacher,
  36. (1989). Creating professional identity: Dilemmas and metaphors of a first-year chemistry teacher,
  37. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries,
  38. (1993). Critical incidents in teaching,
  39. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge,
  40. (1992). Curriculum and pedagogy, In P.W. Jackson (Ed.) Handbook of research
  41. (2004). Curriculum as vision, In
  42. (1992). Curriculum implementation,
  43. (1999). Curriculum materials in mathematics education reform: a framework for examining teachers’ curriculum development, Curriculum Inquiry,
  44. (1995). Curriculum of teacher education programs,
  45. (1997). Definitely, Maybe Not? The Normalisation of Recreational Drug use among Young People, Sociology,
  46. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices,
  47. (1994). Developing teachers, Developing schools,
  48. (1994). Developing understanding of the idea of communities of learners, Mind, culture and activity,
  49. (1999). Dialogic inquiry: Toward a socio-cultural practice and theory of education, Cambridge:
  50. (2000). Does educational research matter?
  51. (1999). Early Childhood pedagogy: Practice, principles and research,
  52. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. Towards a new design for teaching and learning in the professions,
  53. (2001). Education in Malaysia – A journey to excellence, Prepared by Educational Planning and Research.
  54. (1998). Educational reform networks: Changes in the forms of reform, In
  55. (1997). English as a global language, Cambridge:
  56. (2001). English as a Global language, In
  57. (1996). English as an Asian language, In English is an Asian Language,
  58. (1997). Enhancing teaching and teacher education with peer coaching,
  59. (1999). Equivalent curriculum constructions situated discourse: a case in the context of adult education
  60. (1938). Experience and Education,
  61. (2001). Exploring teachers’ beliefs and processes of change,
  62. (2010). Exploring the professional role identities of experienced ESL teachers through reflective practice, System,
  63. (1994). Exploring the teacher’s professional knowledge: Constructing identity and community,
  64. (1982). Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual, London: George Allen and Unwin.
  65. (1935). Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact,
  66. (1993). Getting the story, understanding the lives: from career stories to teachers’ professional development,
  67. (1998). Handbook of Instructional Leadership: How Really Good Principals Promote Teaching and Learning,
  68. (1991). How to plan and implement a peer coaching programme,
  69. (2001). Identifying research priorities: Themes and directions for the TESOL International Research Foundation,
  70. (2001). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education,
  71. (2008). Improving an EFL class: Starting from Classroom Observations, Asian EFL Journal:
  72. (1991). In-depth Interviewing,
  73. (1999). Inleiding op het themanummer: professional eidentiteit van leararen [Professional identity of teachers],
  74. (2002). Inquiry into experience: teachers’ personal and professional growth, In
  75. (2002). Inservice training or professional development: contrasting opportunities in a school/university partnership,
  76. (2003). Insider teacher community: Representations of classroom practice, Teachers College Record,
  77. (2000). Introducing sociocultural theory,
  78. (2005). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches,
  79. (1992). Introduction, In Hargreaves and Fullan (Eds.) Understanding teacher development,
  80. (1987). Knowledge and teaching. Foundations for new reform,
  81. (1989). Knowledge base for beginning teachers,
  82. (1983). Kurrikulum Baru Sekolah Renda, Prepared by Educational Planning and Research.
  83. (1982). Language and society in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
  84. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning,
  85. (1998). Language Teacher Education,
  86. (1989). Language, context and text, London:
  87. (2009). Learner-driven EFL curriculum development at the classroom level,
  88. (1987). Learning by expanding,
  89. (1999). Learning communities in classrooms: A Reconceptualization of educational practice,
  90. (1995). Learning out of school, In C. Desforges (Ed.) An introduction to teaching: psychological perspectives (pp. 93-112),
  91. (1993). Learning scientific concepts through material and social activities: conversational analysis meets conceptual change,
  92. (2003). Learning through experience: Troubling orthodoxies and interesting questions,
  93. (2006). Learning through participation. The potential of schoolbased teacher education for developing a professional identity,
  94. (1992). Learning to teach: Instructional actions and decisions of preservice ESL teachers,
  95. (1994). Merging theory and practice in pre-service language teacher education, In
  96. (1978). Mind in society,
  97. (1934). Mind, self and society,
  98. (2006). Mirrors for an ESL Classroom: Using reflective teaching to explore classroom practice and enhance professional growth,
  99. (1996). Models of teaching and learning: Participation in a community of learners, In
  100. (2010). Monday (non teaching day) 13. doesn’t get stuck for ideas 14. feels time constraint 23. doesn’t feel the need to record positive moments-lingering good feel Table 3.8 Examples of codes and categories Appendix 3 Segment of lesson plan Week 21 C2T (18ss)
  101. (1991). Narrative and the self,
  102. (1995). Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis,
  103. (2009). Narrative Inquiry for teacher education and development: Focus on English as a foreign language in China,
  104. (1992). Native or Nonnative: Who’s Worth More?,
  105. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry,
  106. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development,
  107. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one,
  108. (1984). Perceived problems of beginning teachers,
  109. (1987). Perspectives on staff development, In Wideen & Andrews (Eds.) Staff development for school improvement,
  110. (1989). Piagetien epistemology: Equilibration and the teaching of science, Synthesis,
  111. (1990). Power, responsibility and accountability in continuing professional education, In
  112. (1989). Primary teachers talking, London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul.
  113. (2005). Professional Development for Language Teachers, Strategies for Teacher Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge Language Education.
  114. (2002). Professional development to promote school-wide inquiry,
  115. (1999). Professional development, classroom practice and student outcome: exploring the connections in early literacy development,
  116. (1999). Provisional selves: experimenting with image and identity in professional adaptation,
  117. (1998). Qualitative research and Case Study Applications in Education,
  118. (2004). Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity,
  119. (2000). Redefining staff development,
  120. (1999). Reflections on critical incidents.
  121. (1996). Reflective Teaching,
  122. (1999). Relationships of knowledge and practice: Teacher learning in communities,
  123. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches,
  124. (2000). Research Methods in Education, London: Routledge Coldron,
  125. (2006). Research methods knowledge base, Web Center for Social Research Methods,
  126. (2005). Research paradigms and meaning making: A primer, The Qualitative report,
  127. (1997). Response: On claims that answers the wrong questions,
  128. (2004). Revised Ethical Guidelines, London:
  129. (1982). Sampling in Ethnographic Fieldwork, In
  130. (1995). School-based curriculum development and national curriculum: Can they coexist? Curriculum and Teaching,
  131. (1994). Searching for Authenticity, Vocational aspect of education,
  132. (2009). Second language acquisition, teacher education and language pedagogy,
  133. (2002). Second language teacher education, In
  134. (1988). Situated knowledge and expertise in teaching,
  135. (1994). Situated learning - A Workplace Experience,
  136. (1991). Situated learning in communities of practice, In
  137. (1991). Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation,
  138. (2010). Students teachers’ professional identity, Teaching and Teacher Education,
  139. (1988). Studying teachers’ knowledge of classrooms: Collaborative research, ethics and the negotiation of narrative,
  140. (1990). Supervisory leadership: An introduction to instructional supervision,
  141. (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and method,
  142. (1999). Tacit knowledge in professional practice,
  143. (1995). Taking the lead from teachers,
  144. (2010). Teacher collaboration as professional development in a large, suburban high school, Ph D dissertation,
  145. (1992). Teacher development and instructional mastery, In Hargreaves and Fullan (Eds.) Understanding teacher development,
  146. (2005). Teacher education and the development of professional identity: Learning to be a teacher, In
  147. (2001). Teacher preparation
  148. (1996). Teacher professional development,
  149. (1988). Teacher study group: persistent questions in a promising approach,
  150. (1998). Teacher study groups,
  151. (1989). Teacher support groups: Why and How,
  152. (1983). Teacher thinking: a study of practical knowledge,
  153. (1988). Teachers as curriculum planners,
  154. (1990). Teachers as researchers. Implications for teacher education,
  155. (1984). Teachers’ Classroom Decision-Making,
  156. (1995). Teachers’ prior experiences and actual perception of professional identity, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice,
  157. (1994). Teachers’ professional development: a biographical perspective,
  158. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes,
  159. (1998). Teaching in action,
  160. (2008). Teaching what they learn, learning what they live,
  161. (1990). Textbook use and teacher professionalism, In
  162. (1990). Textbooks, curriculum and school improvement, In
  163. (1990). Textbooks, textbook publisher and the quality of schooling, In
  164. (2007). The challenges of insider research in educational institutions: wielding a double-edged sword and resolving delicate dilemmas, Oxford Review of Education,
  165. (2007). The changing tenor of English in multicultural postcolonial Malaysia 3L: Language, Linguistics and Literature, The Southeast Asian
  166. (1982). The coaching of teaching,
  167. (1949). The Concept of Mind,
  168. (1995). The Consequences of INSET,
  169. (1986). The cultures of teaching,
  170. (2000). The development of second and foreign language learning through classroom interaction,
  171. (2008). The development of the personal self and professional identity in learning to teach,
  172. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
  173. (2000). The experience of constructivism: Transforming teacher epistemology,
  174. (1997). The Future of English, Produced for The British Council by The English
  175. (1985). The generative learning model and its implications for science education,
  176. (2009). The intuitive practitioner: on the value of not always knowing what one is doing, Milton Keynes:
  177. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery,
  178. (1996). The multiple “I’s” of teacher identity,
  179. (1993). The new meaning of educational change,
  180. (2006). The personal and professional selves of teachers: Stable and unstable identities,
  181. (1994). The Philosophy of Research design, In
  182. (1993). The practice of learning, In
  183. (2006). The professional learning of teachers in higher education,
  184. (1999). The realities of teachers’ work: never a dull moment,
  185. (2002). The reconstruction of primary teachers’ identities,
  186. (1983). The reflective practitioner. How Professionals think in action,
  187. (2000). The Research Interview,
  188. (2004). The researcher/interviewer in intercultural context: a social intruder!,
  189. (2001). The role of textbooks in a language program, Cambridge:
  190. (1995). The social construction of data: Methodological problems of investigating learning in the zone of proximal development,
  191. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge,
  192. (2002). The social mind: Construction of the idea, Cambridge:
  193. (2004). The Star Education, Poor English a drawback,
  194. (2011). The Star Education, The Tuition Nation,
  195. (2005). The Star Education, Unemployable graduates,
  196. (1981). The study of the curriculum,
  197. (1966). The Tacit Dimension, Garden City,
  198. (1992). The teachers as decision-maker, In
  199. (2002). The three dimensions of learning, Gylling:
  200. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory,
  201. (1992). Thinking constructively about Science, Technology, and Society Education,
  202. (1986). Those who understand knowledge growth in teaching,
  203. (1982). Three educational ideologies, In
  204. (1990). Time for change, In J.M. Newman (Ed.) Finding Our Own Way,
  205. (2001). Towards a theory of teacher community, Teachers College Record,
  206. (1995). Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis and Interpretation,
  207. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: an overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education,
  208. (1987). Utilizing the literature in teaching the research paper,
  209. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of the mind,
  210. (1987). Ways of thinking about students and classrooms by more and less experienced teachers,
  211. (2008). What do we want teaching-materials for EFL teacher training programs?
  212. (2006). What is Teacher learning? A Socio-Cultural Perspective, Oxford Review of Education,
  213. (1993). What’s in a Setting? Learning in a Workplace,
  214. (2008). When EFL teachers inquire in a teacher study group,
  215. (2006). Why is dissemination so difficult? The nature of teacher knowledge and the spread of curriculum reform,
  216. (1990). Why use textbooks? In
  217. (2006). Within and Beyond Communities of Practice: Making Sense of Learning Thorough Participation, identity and practice,
  218. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence,
  219. (1975). Workshops for teachers,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.