The contemporary ideal male physique is large and muscular, and has become more so over the last 40 years (Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia, 2000). This ideal is a prevalent\ud and socially constructed image in today’s Western societies (Baghurst, Hollander, Nardella, & Haff, 2006). In addition to aesthetic advantages, some individuals perceive\ud that males with muscular physiques possess various positive traits and experience success in other domains of life (Ryckman, Butler, Thornton, & Lindner,\ud 1997). Given the prevalence of this ideal and the importance it is accorded, it is unsurprising that significant numbers of Western males perceive discrepancies\ud between their current and desired muscularity levels (Frederick et al., 2007). The disjunction between current and ideal muscularity levels, and the belief\ud individuals with muscular physiques accrue certain advantages may induce a drive for muscularity (DM) in certain men. Although only subject to recent investigation,\ud research on this drive is vibrant. As characteristic of many emerging areas, researchers have explored numerous possible correlates. The findings of many studies\ud need to be replicated, and there have been few sustained efforts to test theory. A review appears timely as a way to consolidate research trends and identify useful\ud future investigations. The current chapter includes (a) a DM definition, (b) an overview of scales commonly used to measure this drive, (c) an overview of existing\ud theories that help describe the emergence of this drive in some men, (d) identification of future research and (e) practical applications for helping people whose DM\ud might interfere with their lives
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