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INTEGRAL observations of the cosmic X-ray background in the 5-100 keV range via occultation by the Earth

By E. Churazov, R. Sunyaev, M. Revnivtsev, S. Sazonov, S. Molkov, S. Grebenev, C. Winkler, A. Parmar, A. Bazzano, M. Falanga, A. Gros, F. Lebrun, L. Natalucci, P. Ubertini, J.-P. Roques, L. Bouchet, E. Jourdain, J. Knoedlseder, R. Diehl, C. Budtz-Jorgensen, S. Brandt, N. Lund, N. J. Westergaard, A. Neronov, M. Turler, M. Chernyakova, R. Walter, N. Produit, N. Mowlavi, J. M. Mas-Hesse, A. Domingo, N. Gehrels, E. Kuulkers, P. Kretschmar and M. Schmidt

Abstract

14 pages, 12 figuesAims. We study the spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in energy range ~5-100 keV. Methods. Early in 2006 the INTEGRAL observatory performed a series of four 30 ks observations with the Earth disk crossing the field of view of the instruments. The modulation of the aperture flux due to occultation of extragalactic objects by the Earth disk was used to obtain the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB). Various sources of contamination were evaluated, including compact sources, Galactic Ridge emission, CXB reflection by the Earth atmosphere, cosmic ray induced emission by the Earth atmosphere and the Earth auroral emission. Results.The spectrum of the cosmic X-ray background in the energy band 5-100 keV is obtained. The shape of the spectrum is consistent with that obtained previously by the HEAO-1 observatory, while the normalization is ~10% higher. This difference in normalization can (at least partly) be traced to the different assumptions on the absolute flux from the Crab Nebulae. The increase relative to the earlier adopted value of the absolute flux of the CXB near the energy of maximum luminosity (20-50 keV) has direct implications for the energy release of supermassive black holes in the Universe and their growth at the epoch of the CXB origin

Topics: [SDU.ASTR] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph], [PHYS.ASTR.CO] Physics [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO], [SDU.ASTR.CO] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Astrophysics [astro-ph]/Cosmology and Extra-Galactic Astrophysics [astro-ph.CO]
Publisher: EDP Sciences
Year: 2007
DOI identifier: 10.1051/0004-6361:20066230
OAI identifier: oai:HAL:in2p3-00135313v1
Provided by: Hal-Diderot
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