Importance of biomarker discovery in men’s cancer diagnosis and prognosis\ud Each year around 10,000 men in the UK die as a result of prostate cancer (PCa) making it the 3rd most common\ud cancer behind lung and breast cancer; worldwide more than 670,000 men are diagnosed every year with the\ud disease . Current methods of diagnosis of PCa mainly rely on the detection of elevated prostate-specific\ud antigen (PSA) levels in serum and/or physical examination by a doctor for the detection of an abnormal prostate.\ud PSA is a glycoprotein produced almost exclusively by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland . Its role is not\ud fully understood, although it is known that it forms part of the ejaculate and its function is to solubilise the sperm\ud to give them the mobility to swim. Raised PSA levels in serum are thought to be due to both an increased\ud production of PSA from the proliferated prostate cells, and a diminished architecture of affected cells, allowing an\ud easier distribution of PSA into the wider circulatory system.\u
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