This study concerns Shia-Sunni conflict and the postconflict restoration of peace in Pakistan. It sets case studies of two 'contested cities' -Jhang and Gilgit- within a wider national and international framework, examining the historical roots of sectarian conflict, the trajectory and nature of the violence, and the restoration of relative calm. It draws on existing analyses of sectarian conflict in Pakistan and case studies in the two cities based on individual and group interviews with key informants, including political and religious leaders, government officials and residents. it argues that unless peace-building tackles the underlying dynamics of intra-religious conflict, it results in negative peace rather than conflict transformation
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