Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Dilemmas of pride and pain: sectarian conflict and conflict transformation in Pakistan

By Mohammad Waseem, Tahir Kamran, Mukhtar Ahmed Ali and Katja Riikonen


This study concerns Shia-Sunni conflict and the postconflict restoration of peace in Pakistan. It sets case studies of two 'contested cities' -Jhang and Gilgit- within a wider national and international framework, examining the historical roots of sectarian conflict, the trajectory and nature of the violence, and the restoration of relative calm. It draws on existing analyses of sectarian conflict in Pakistan and case studies in the two cities based on individual and group interviews with key informants, including political and religious leaders, government officials and residents. it argues that unless peace-building tackles the underlying dynamics of intra-religious conflict, it results in negative peace rather than conflict transformation

Topics: H Social Sciences (General), JA Political science (General)
Publisher: University of Birmingham
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • (external link)
  • (external link)
  • http://www.religionsanddevelop... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. (1999). A Public Peace Process: Sustained Dialogue to Transform Racial and Ethnic Conflicts. doi
    2. (2004). A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan.
    3. (1999). Anger Be Now Thy Song’: the Anthropology of an Event’. Cambridge MA:
    4. Anne (2002) Pakistan:
    5. Ayesha (1006) Light Weapons Manufacture in the Public and Private Sectors: A View from
    6. (2003). Caliphate. In The Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim World,
    7. (2007). Conflict Prevention and Peaceful Development: Politics to Reduce Inequalities and Exclusion?
    8. (2009). Contextualising sectarian militancy in Pakistan: a case study of Jhang.
    9. (2000). Creating the conditions for peacemaking: theories of practice in ethnic conflict resolution. Ethnic and Racial Studies. doi
    10. (2008). Democracy and Governance in Pakistan, Lahore: South Asian Partnership.
    11. (2004). Development of an institutionalised riot system in Meerut City,
    12. (1996). Discourses on Violence,
    13. (2000). District Census Report of Jhang, Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division.
    14. (2005). Divided by Democracy, Delhi: Lotus Collection.
    15. (2003). Ethnic and sectarian violence and the propensity towards praetorianism in Pakistan.
    16. (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict,
    17. (1979). From Jinnah to Zia,
    18. (1999). Fundamentalism, Sectarianism, and Revolution. Cambridge:
    19. (2002). Homeland making and the territorialisation of national identity.
    20. (1998). Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
    21. Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (2008) Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion: State of Human Rights in 2009, Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan,
    22. (2006). Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny, doi
    23. (1991). India, Pakistan and Kashmir: antinomies of nationalism.
    24. (1996). Integration and disintegration: an approach to society formation.
    25. (1999). Islam and the Political Discourse of Modernity.
    26. (1995). Islam and the Secular State in Pakistan. Kandy: Ethnic Studies Report.
    27. (2006). Islam in the Public Sphere: Religious groups in India, 1900-1947,
    28. (2002). Islam, the state, and the rise of sectarian militancy in Pakistan. In Jaffrelot, Christophe (Ed) Pakistan: Nationalism Without a Nation.
    29. (2004). Islamic radicalism and minorities in Pakistan. doi
    30. Ismail (2005) Gilgit - a man made calamity.
    31. (2003). Jihad Aur Jihadi: Pakistan aur Kashmir kay Aham Rahnumaon ka Taaruf (in Urdu) (Jihad and Jihadi: Introduction of Important Jihadi Leaders of Pakistan and Kashmir).
    32. (1996). Judicial independence and democratization: a theoretical and conceptual analysis.
    33. (1996). Leveling Crowds, Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia.
    34. (2005). Living Islam: Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier, Cambridge:
    35. (2008). Madrasa Enhancement and Global Security - A Model for Faith–Based Engagement,
    36. (2004). Maulana Chinioti - the Great Apostatiser (1931-2004). The Friday Times,
    37. Meer (1868-69) Gilgit and Chitral.
    38. (2001). Moving Beyond Sectarianism, Blackrock:
    39. (1998). National Deconstruction: Violence, Identity and Justice in Bosnia,
    40. (2001). Nationalism without a nation: Pakistan searching for its identity.
    41. (1999). Nationalism, boundaries, and violence.
    42. (1999). New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era,
    43. (2006). of the Republic of Pakistan
    44. (2004). Origins and growth patterns of Islamic organisations in Pakistan.
    45. (2004). Pakistan: civil society in the service of authoritarian state. In Alagappa, Muthiah (Ed) Civil Society and Political Change in Asia: Expanding and Contracting Democratic Space. doi
    46. (2009). Pakistan: Identity, Ideology and Beyond. London: Quilliam Foundation.
    47. (2005). Pakistan’s Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army and America’s War on Terror. doi
    48. (2004). Pakistan’s sectarian violence: between the ‘Arabist shift’ and Indo-Persian culture. In Limaye, Satu
    49. (2007). Political sources of Islamic militancy in Pakistan. In Talbot, Ian (Ed) The Deadly Embrace: Religion, Violence and Politics in India and Pakistan 1947-2002. Karachi:
    50. (1996). Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts, doi
    51. (1997). Qur’an: Liberation and Pluralism: An Islamic Perspective of Interreligious Solidarity Against Oppression,
    52. (2002). Religious minorities: case for a pluralist democracy in Pakistan.
    53. (2001). Resizing and reshaping the state: India from partition to present. In O’Leary, Brian (Ed) Rightsizing the State: the Politics of Moving Borders.
    54. Sectarian Conflict and Conflict Transformation
    55. (2007). Sectarian Conflict and Conflict Transformation in Pakistan Nasr, Vali Reza
    56. (2000). Sectarian conflict in Pakistan.
    57. (2008). Sectarian Conflict in Pakistan. Colombo: Regional Centre for Strategic Studies, Policy Studies 9, accessed
    58. (2008). Sectarian fatwas in Pakistan’, Paper presented at Religiona and Development Research Programme workshop in
    59. (2003). Sectarian Violence in Karachi 1994-2002. Karachi: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP).
    60. (1995). Sectarianism as a political problem in Pakistan: the case of Northern Areas.
    61. (1998). Sectarianism in Pakistan: the radicalization of Shii and Sunni identities. doi
    62. (2002). Sectarianism: The Players and the Game,
    63. (2003). Selves and others: representing multiplicities of difference in Gilgit, Northern Areas of Pakistan.
    64. (2006). Shia Revivalism: Conflicts Within Islam will Shape the Future. doi
    65. (2005). Sipah-e-Sahaba: fomenting sectarian violence in Pakistan. Terrorism Monitor,
    66. (2003). Social Theory and Religion, Cambridge:
    67. (1997). State and Civil Society in Pakistan: Politics of Authority, Ideology and Ethnicity,
    68. (1996). State and religion in Islamic societies.
    69. (2005). State of Sectarianism in Pakistan.
    70. (2004). Sunni-Shia relations in Pakistan: the widening divide.
    71. (2010). Targeting doctors, missing patients: obstetric health services and sectarian conflict in Northern Pakistan.
    72. (1973). Tarikh i Jhang,
    73. (2004). The Counterterror Coalitions: Cooperation with Pakistan and India. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation (for the US Air Force) 2004/RAND_MG141.pdf Fazlur-Rehman
    74. (1997). The evolution of civil society and social transformation in Pakistan”,
    75. (1979). The Gilgit Game: The Explorers of the Western Himalayas 1865-95,
    76. (1996). The importance of space in violent ethno-religious strife. doi
    77. (2005). The MMA of Pakistan’, Paper presented at a conference on Balancing Stability and Change: Political Reform, Islamic Activism and Development Scenarios for Pakistan,
    78. (1988). The Political Economy of Pakistan,
    79. (1995). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation, Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflict, London and
    80. (2003). The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India,
    81. (2002). The regional cimension of sectarian conflict In Pakistan. In Jaffrelot, Christophe (Ed) Nationalism without a Nation. New Delhi: Monohar,
    82. (1954). The Report of the Court of Inquiry Constituted under Punjab Act
    83. (2000). The rise of Sunni militancy in Pakistan: the changing role of Islamism and the ulema in society and politics.
    84. (2007). The roots of sectarianism in
    85. (2009). The spectre of Islamic fundamentalism over Pakistan (1947-2007). In Jetly, Rajshree (Ed) Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics,
    86. (2004). The Sunni-Shia conflict in Jhang (Pakistan).
    87. (1999). The theological construction of conflict: Gilgit, Northern Areas. In Manger, Leif (Ed) Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts,
    88. (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. doi
    89. (1990). Theories of power-sharing and conflict management. In
    90. (2006). Trajectories of faith in the global age: classical theory and contemporary evidence. In Beckford, James and Walliss, John (Eds) Theorising Religion: Classical and Contemporary Debates,
    91. (1999). Transforming conflict in democratizing: a new agenda for conflict resolution.
    92. (2005). Understanding religious violence in contemporary Pakistan: themes and theories.
    93. (2005). Violent association.The News,
    94. (2006). Weber, rationalisation, and religious evolution in the modern era. In
    95. (2006). Weeding out the heretics: sectarianism in Pakistan. In
    96. (2001). Zulfiqar (Eds) doi

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.