Location of Repository

Mechanisms of stomatal development: an evolutionary view

By Anne Vatén and Dominique C Bergmann


Plant development has a significant postembryonic phase that is guided heavily by interactions between the plant and the outside environment. This interplay is particularly evident in the development, pattern and function of stomata, epidermal pores on the aerial surfaces of land plants. Stomata have been found in fossils dating from more than 400 million years ago. Strikingly, the morphology of the individual stomatal complex is largely unchanged, but the sizes, numbers and arrangements of stomata and their surrounding cells have diversified tremendously. In many plants, stomata arise from specialized and transient stem-cell like compartments on the leaf. Studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana have established a basic molecular framework for the acquisition of cell fate and generation of cell polarity in these compartments, as well as describing some of the key signals and receptors required to produce stomata in organized patterns and in environmentally optimized numbers. Here we present parallel analyses of stomatal developmental pathways at morphological and molecular levels and describe the innovations made by particular clades of plants

Topics: Review
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3390899
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles



    1. (2011). AM: Land plants acquired active stomatal control early in their evolutionary history. Curr Biol
    2. (2006). Arabidopsis FAMA controls the final proliferation/differentiation switch during stomatal development. Plant Cell
    3. (1995). Arrest of stomatal initials in Tradescantia is linked to the proximity of neighboring stomata and results in the arrested initials acquiring properties of epidermal cells. Dev Biol
    4. (2009). Beerling DJ: Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
    5. (1984). Carbon assimilation characteristics of the aquatic CAM plant, isoetes howellii. Plant Physiol
    6. (1977). Chabot BF: Ultrastructure of the epidermis and stomatal complex of balsam fir (Abies balsamea).
    7. (2011). Coen E: Generation of spatial patterns through cell polarity switching. Science
    8. (1970). Comparative morphological study of the stomata in the Filicopsida.
    9. (2004). CR: Stomatal development and pattern controlled by a MAPKK kinase. Science
    10. (2008). DC: Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science
    11. (2009). DC: BASL controls asymmetric cell division in Arabidopsis. Cell
    12. (2011). DC: Generation of signaling specificity in Arabidopsis by spatially restricted buffering of ligand-receptor interactions. Plant Cell
    13. (2009). DC: Novel and expanded roles for MAPK signaling in Arabidopsis stomatal cell fate revealed by cell type-specific manipulations. Plant Cell
    14. (2009). DC: Orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana stomatal bHLH genes and regulation of stomatal development in grasses. Development
    15. (2010). DC: Regional specification of stomatal production by the putative ligand CHALLAH. Development
    16. (2010). DC: Stomatal patterning and development. Curr Top Dev Biol
    17. (2001). DC: Stomatal Patterning.I neLS. Edited by Anonymous.:
    18. (2007). DC: Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. Nature
    19. (1999). Discordia mutations specifically misorient asymmetric cell divisions during development of the maize leaf epidermis. Development
    20. (2007). Farquhar GD: The mechanical diversity of stomata and its significance in gas-exchange control. Plant Physiol
    21. (2003). FI: The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature
    22. (1998). H: Stomata in early land plants: an anatomical and ecophysiological approach.
    23. (2010). Hara-Nishimura I: Stomagen positively regulates stomatal density in Arabidopsis. Nature
    24. (2009). LG: PAN1: a receptor-like protein that promotes polarization of an asymmetric cell division in maize. Science
    25. (2000). LG: Roles for polarity and nuclear determinants in specifying daughter cell fates after an asymmetric cell division in the maize leaf. Curr Biol
    26. (2011). LG: ROP GTPases act with the receptor-like protein PAN1 to polarize asymmetric cell division in maize. Plant Cell
    27. (2012). Low relative humidity triggers RNA-directed de novo DNA methylation and suppression of genes controlling stomatal development.
    28. (2011). McAdam SA: Passive origins of stomatal control in vascular plants. Science
    29. (2009). Multifunctional surface structures of plants: an inspiration for biomimetics.
    30. (1982). On the stomata of some tropical African mosses. Lindbergia
    31. (2011). P: 3d surface profiling and high resolution imaging for refining the florin rings and epicuticular wax crystals of Pinus koraiensis needles. Microsc Res Tech
    32. (1985). Paolillo DJ Jr: Incomplete cytokinesis in Funaria stomata.
    33. (2003). PC: The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity. Mol Biol Evol
    34. (2010). Plant twitter: ligands under 140 amino acids enforcing stomatal patterning.
    35. (2009). Renzaglia KS: Exploding a myth: the capsule dehiscence mechanism and the function of pseudostomata in Sphagnum. New Phytol
    36. (2012). Renzaglia KS: Major transitions in the evolution of early land plants: a bryological perspective. Ann Bot
    37. (1981). Riding RT: Structure and ontogeny of the stomatal complex in Pinus strobus L. and Pinus banksiana lamb.
    38. (2012). Russinova E: SPEECHLESS integrates brassinosteroid and stomata signalling pathways. Nat Cell Biol
    39. (2002). Sack FD: Control of stomatal distribution on the Arabidopsis leaf surface. Science
    40. (1995). Sack FD: The too many mouths and four lips mutations affect stomatal production in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell
    41. (1999). Sack FD: Ultrastructure of stomatal development in Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae) leaves.
    42. (2009). Sakagami Y: Stomatal density is controlled by a mesophyll-derived signaling molecule. Plant Cell Physiol
    43. (1992). Sand-Jensen K: Adaptations of submerged Lobelia dortmanna to aerial life form: morphology, carbon sources and oxygen dynamics. Oikos
    44. (2007). Stomatal development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell
    45. (2005). Stomatal patterning and differentiation by synergistic interactions of receptor kinases. Science
    46. (2009). T: Epidermal cell density is autoregulated via a secretory peptide,
    47. (2011). T: Peptide signaling in plant development. Curr Biol
    48. (2007). T: The secretory peptide gene EPF1 enforces the stomatal one-cell-spacing rule. Genes Dev
    49. The evolution of stomata.I nStomatal Function. Edited by Zeiger E, Farquhar GD, Cowan IR.
    50. (2009). The guard cell as a single-cell model towards understanding drought tolerance and abscisic acid action.
    51. (2009). The signaling peptide EPF2 controls asymmetric cell divisions during stomatal development. Curr Biol
    52. (2012). Torii KU: Direct interaction of ligand-receptor pairs specifying stomatal patterning. Genes Dev
    53. (2011). Torii KU: Molecular profiling of stomatal meristemoids reveals new component of asymmetric cell division and commonalities among stem cell populations in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell
    54. (2010). Torii KU: Out of the mouths of plants: the molecular basis of the evolution and diversity of stomatal development. Plant Cell
    55. (2008). Torii KU: SCREAM/ICE1 and SCREAM2 specify three cell-state transitional steps leading to arabidopsis stomatal differentiation. Plant Cell
    56. (2004). Torii KU: Synergistic interaction of three ERECTA-family receptor-like kinases controls Arabidopsis organ growth and flower development by promoting cell proliferation. Development
    57. (2007). Torii KU: Termination of asymmetric cell division and differentiation of stomata. Nature
    58. (2003). Zhu JK: ICE1: a regulator of cold-induced transcriptome and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev
    59. (2012). ZY: Brassinosteroid regulates stomatal development by GSK3-mediated inhibition of a MAPK pathway. Nature

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.