Location of Repository

Phosphate Import in Plants: Focus on the PHT1 Transporters

By Laurent Nussaume, Satomi Kanno, Hélène Javot, Elena Marin, Nathalie Pochon, Amal Ayadi, Tomoko M. Nakanishi and Marie-Christine Thibaud


The main source of phosphorus for plants is inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is characterized by its poor availability and low mobility. Uptake of this element from the soil relies heavily upon the PHT1 transporters, a specific family of plant plasma membrane proteins that were identified by homology with the yeast PHO84 Pi transporter. Since the discovery of PHT1 transporters in 1996, various studies have revealed that their function is controlled by a highly complex network of regulation. This review will summarize the current state of research on plant PHT1 multigenic families, including physiological, biochemical, molecular, cellular, and genetics studies

Topics: Plant Science
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3355772
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles



    1. (2010). A central regulatory system largely controls transcriptional activation and repression responses to phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis.
    2. (2001). A conserved MYB transcription factor involvedinphosphatestarvationsignaling both in vascular plants and in unicellular algae.
    3. (2007). A cytosolic trans-activation domain essential for ammonium uptake.
    4. (2005). A genome-wide transcriptional analysis using Arabidopsis thaliana affymetrix gene chips determinedplantresponsestophosphate deprivation.
    5. (2007). A Medicago truncatula phosphate transporter indispensable for the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
    6. (2007). A mutant of the Arabidopsis phosphate transporter PHT1;1 displays enhanced arsenic accumulation.
    7. (2011). A novel fry1 allele reveals the existence of a mutant phenotype unrelated to 5’→3’ exoribonuclease (XRN) activities in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.PLoSONE 6,e16724. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016724
    8. (2002). A phosphate transporter from Medicago truncatula involved in the acquisition of phosphate released by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
    9. (1995). A phosphate transporter fromthemycorrhizalfungusGlomus versiforme.
    10. (2001). A phosphate transporter with enhanced expressiononproteoidrootsofwhitelupin (Lupinus albus L.).
    11. (1995). A phosphaterepressible, high-affinity phosphate permease is encoded by the pho-5+ gene of Neurospora crassa.
    12. (2007). An “electronic fluorescent pictograph” browser for exploring and analyzing largescale biological data sets.
    13. and Abel,S.(2001).Attenuationof phosphate starvation responses by phosphite in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol.
    14. andWu,P.(2011).OsPHF1regulates the plasma membrane localization of low- and high-affinity inorganic phosphate transporters and determines inorganic phosphate uptake andtranslocationinrice.PlantPhysiol.
    15. (2011). Arabidopsis Pht1;5 mobilizes phosphate betweensourceandsinkorgans,and influences the interaction between phosphate homeostasis and ethylene signaling.
    16. (2011). Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity phosphate transporters exhibit multiple levels of posttranslational regulation.
    17. (2003). Ars1, an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting increased tolerancetoarsenateandincreasedphosphate uptake.
    18. (2011). AXR4 is requiredforlocalizationoftheauxin influx facilitator AUX1.
    19. (2005). Cereal phosphate transporters associated with the mycorrhizal pathway of phosphate uptake into roots.
    20. (2003). Changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis shoots during phosphate starvation and the potential for developing smart plants.
    21. (1984). Changes in the kinetics of phosphate and potassium absorption in nutrient-deficient barley roots measured by a solution-depletion technique.
    22. (1995). Characterization of a phosphateaccumulator mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    23. (2008). Characterization of a sub-family of Arabidopsis genes with the SPX domain reveals their diverse functions in plant tolerance to phosphorus starvation.
    24. (2004). Characterization of promoter expression patterns derived fromthePht1phosphatetransporter genes of barley
    25. (2003). Characterization of two phosphate transporters from barley; evidence for diverse function and kinetic properties among members of the Pht1 family.
    26. (2005). Cloning and characterization of cDNA for the Oryza sativa phosphate transporter.
    27. (2002). Cloning, functional expression, and mutational analysis of a cDNAforLotusjaponicus mitochondrial phosphate transporter.
    28. (2008). Closely related members of the Medicago truncatula PHT1 phosphate transporter gene family encode phosphate transporters with distinct biochemical activities.
    29. (2007). Differential effects of sucrose and auxin on localized phosphate deficiencyinduced modulation of different traits of root system architecture in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol.
    30. (2010). Dissection of local and systemic transcriptional responsestophosphatestarvationin Arabidopsis.
    31. (2010). Dynamics of periarbuscular membranes visualized with a fluorescent phosphatetransporterinarbuscularmycorrhizal roots of rice.
    32. (2005). Endocytosis and degradation of BOR1, a boron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana, regulated by boron availability.
    33. (2009). Environment: the disappearing nutrient.
    34. (2002). Expression analysis suggests novel roles for membersof thePht1familyof phosphate transporters in Arabidopsis.
    35. (1998). extent,development and economic impact of acid soils,”
    36. (1990). Extra- and intracellular pH and membrane potential changes induced by K, Cl, H(2)PO(4), and NO(3)uptakeandfusicoccininroot hairs of Limnobium stoloniferum.
    37. (2010). Fears over phosphorus supplies.
    38. (2011). Fluxes of (238)U decay series radionuclides in a dicalcium phosphate industrial plant.
    39. (2007). Functional biology of plant phosphate uptake at root andmycorrhizainterfaces.New Phytol.
    40. (2007). Functional characterization of LePT4: a phosphate transporter in tomato with mycorrhiza-enhanced expression.
    41. (2011). Genetic and genomic evidence that sucrose is a global regulator of plant response to phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis.
    42. (2007). Genome-wide reprogramming of metabolism and regulatory networks of Arabidopsis in response to phosphorus. Plant Cell Environ.
    43. (2007). Glycerolipid transfer for the building of membranes in plant cells.
    44. (2010). Histone H2A.Z regulates the expression of several classes of phosphatestarvationresponsegenes butnotasatranscriptionalactivator.
    45. (2003). Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of ammonium transporter-1 NH4 uniporters.
    46. (2002). Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis PHO1 gene involved in phosphate loading tothexylem.PlantCell 14,889–902.
    47. (2007). Impact of phosphate industry on the environment: a case study.
    48. (2007). Increased expression of the MYB-related transcription factor, PHR1, leads to enhanced phosphateuptakeinArabidopsisthaliana.
    49. (2005). Interaction between phosphatestarvation, sugar, and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis and the roles of cytokinin receptors CRE1/AHK4 and AHK3. Plant Physiol.
    50. (2010). Interactions between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
    51. (2011). Investigating the contribution of the phosphate transport pathway to arsenic accumulation in rice.
    52. (1997). Isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Catharanthus roseus which is highly homologous with phosphate transporter. Soil Sci.
    53. (2006). Isolation and characterization of root-specific phosphate transporter promoters from Medicago truncatula.
    54. (2007). Isolation and comparative analysis of the wheat TaPT2 promoter:identification in silico of new putativeregulatorymotifsconserved between monocots and dicots.
    55. (1992). Kinetic characterization of two phosphate uptake systems with different affinities in suspensioncultured Catharanthus roseus protoplants.
    56. (2007). Laser microdissection reveals that transcripts for five plant and one fungal phosphate transporter genes are contemporaneously present in arbusculated cells.
    57. (2001). Molecular cloning and characterization of a tobacco leaf cDNA encoding a phosphate transporter.
    58. (2009). Molecular mechanisms controlling phosphateinduceddownregulationof theyeast Pho84 phosphate transporter.
    59. Multiple phosphorylations in the Cterminal tail of plant plasma membraneaquaporins:roleinsubcellular trafficking of AtPIP2;1 in response to salt stress.
    60. (1991). Mutant of Arabidopsis deficient in xylem loading of phosphate.
    61. (2002). Mutations at CRE1 impair cytokinin-induced repression of phosphate starvation responses in Arabidopsis.
    62. N.,Raghothama,K.,and Nussaume, L.(2004).Transcriptionalregulation and functional properties of Arabidopsis Pht1;4,ahighaffinitytransporter contributing greatly to phosphate uptake in phosphate deprived plants.
    63. (2001). Negative regulation of phosphate starvation-induced genes.PlantPhysiol.127,1854–1862.
    64. (2007). Novel subsetsof theArabidopsis plasmalemma phosphoproteome identify phosphorylation sites in secondary active transporters.
    65. (2008). OsPHR2 is involved in phosphate-starvation signaling and excessivephosphateaccumulationin shoots of plants.
    66. (2011). Overexpression of PHO1 in Arabidopsis leaves reveals its role in mediating phosphate efflux.
    67. (1997). Overexpressionof anArabidopsisthaliana highaffinity phosphate transporter gene in tobacco cultured cells enhances cellgrowthunderphosphate-limited conditions.
    68. (2006). PHO2, microRNA399, and PHR1 define a phosphate-signaling pathway in plants.
    69. (2006). pho2,a phosphate overaccumulator, is caused by a nonsense mutation in a microRNA399 target gene.
    70. (2006). Phosphate deficiency promotesmodificationof irondistribution in Arabidopsis plants.
    71. (2007). Phosphate homeostasis and root development in Arabidopsis are synchronized by the zinc finger transcription factor ZAT6. Plant Physiol.
    72. (2007). Phosphate in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: transport properties and regulatory roles.
    73. (1973). Phosphate pools, phosphate transport,and phosphate availability.Annu.Rev.PlantPhysiol.
    74. (2009). Phosphate starvation responses and gibberellic acid biosynthesis are regulated by the MYB62 transcription factor in Arabidopsis.
    75. (2007). Phosphate starvation responses are mediated by sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.
    76. (2003). Phosphate starvation triggers distinct alterations of genome expression in Arabidopsis roots and leaves.
    77. (2002). Phosphate transport and homeostasis in Arabidopsis,”
    78. (2004). Phosphate transport in Arabidopsis: Pht1;1 and Pht1;4 play a major role in phosphate acquisition from both lowand high-phosphate environments.
    79. (1998). Phosphate transporter gene family of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    80. (2005). Phosphate transporter traffic facilitator1 is a plant-specific SEC12-related protein that enables the endoplasmic reticulum exit of a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Arabidopsis.
    81. (1996). Phosphate transporters from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
    82. (1984). Phosphate uptake in Lemna gibba G1: energetics and kinetics.
    83. (2002). Phosphite, an analog of phosphate, suppresses the coordinated expression of genes under phosphate starvation.
    84. (2004). Phosphoproteomics of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane and a new phosphorylation site database.
    85. (2003). Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource.
    86. (1998). Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell.
    87. (2011). PHT1 phosphate transporters
    88. (1983). Physiological changes in, and phosphate uptake by potato plants during development of and recovery from phosphate deficiency.
    89. (2002). Plant phosphate transporter genes help harness the nutritional benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
    90. (2004). Promoter analysis of the barley Pht1;1 phosphate transporter gene identifies regions controlling root expression and responsiveness to phosphate deprivation.
    91. (2009). Promoter deletion analysis elucidates the role of cis elements and 5’UTR intron in spatiotemporal regulation of AtPht1;4 expression in Arabidopsis.
    92. (2005). Promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana phosphate transporter gene drives root-specificexpressionoftransgene in rice.
    93. (2011). Proton-coupled high-affinity phosphate transport revealed from heterologous characterization in Xenopus of barleyroot plasma membrane transporter,
    94. (1990). Proton/phosphate stoichiometry in uptake of inorganic phosphate by cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus
    95. (1999). Psr1, a nuclear localized protein that regulates phosphorus metabolism in Chlamydomonas.
    96. (2011). Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.
    97. Rausch,C.,andBucher,M.(2002).Molecular mechanisms of phosphate transport in plants. Planta 216, 23–37. Richardson,A.E.(1994).“Soilmicroorganisms and phosphorus availability,” in Soil Biota: Management in Sustainable Farming Systems,
    98. (2007). Real-time imaging of radioisotope labeled compounds in a living plant.
    99. (2002). Regulated expression of Arabidopsis phosphate transporters.
    100. (2003). Regulation of phosphate acquisition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    101. (2007). Regulation of root nitrate uptakeattheNRT2.1proteinlevelin Arabidopsis thaliana.
    102. (1999). Regulations of Expression of Genes Encoding Phosphate Transporters in Barley Roots.
    103. (1981). Relationship between energy-dependent phosphate uptake and the electrical membrane potential in Lemna gibba G1.
    104. (1995). Repressible cationphosphatesymportersinNeurospora crassa.
    105. (1990). Response to phosphate deprivation in Brassica nigra suspensioncells:enhancementof intracellular, cell surface, and secreted phosphatase activities compared to increasesinpi-absorptionrate.Plant Physiol.
    106. (2003). Restricted spatial expression of a high-affinity phosphate transporter in potato roots.
    107. (2002). Rice phosphate transporters include an evolutionarily divergent gene specifi-cally activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
    108. (2011). Signaling network in sensing phosphate availability in plants.
    109. (2011). Structure and expression profile of the phosphate Pht1transportergenefamilyinmycorrhizal Populus trichocarpa.
    110. (2008). Sucrose transport in the phloem: integrating root responses to phosphorus starvation.
    111. (2011). Sugar signalling in root responses to low P availability.
    112. The characterization of novel mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters from Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum uncovers functional redundancy in symbiotic phosphate transport in solanaceous species.
    113. (1997). The cloning of twoArabidopsis genesbelongingtoa phosphate transporter family.
    114. (1997). The kinetics associated with phosphate absorption by Arabidopsis and its regulation by phosphorus status.
    115. (2005). The LPB1 gene is important for acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to phosphorus and sulfur deprivation.
    116. (2011). The phosphate transporter gene OsPht1;8 is involved in phosphatehomeostasisinrice.Plant Physiol.
    117. (2001). The spatial expression patterns of a phosphate transporter (MtPT1) from Medicago truncatula indicate a role in phosphate transport at the root/soil interface.
    118. (2009). The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought.
    119. (1998). Tomato phosphate transporter genes are differentially regulated in plant tissues by phosphorus.
    120. (1999). Transcriptional regulationofplantphosphatetransporters.
    121. (1997). Two cDNAs from potato are able to complement a phosphate uptake-deficient yeast mutant: identification of phosphate transporters from higher plants.
    122. (2008). Two rice phosphate transporters, OsPht1;2 and OsPht1;6, have different functions and kinetic properties in uptake and translocation.
    123. (2011). Uncoupling phosphate deficiency from its major effectsongrowthandtranscriptome via PHO1 expression in Arabidopsis.
    124. (1984). Uptake and long-distance transport of phosphate, potassium and chloride in relation to internal ion concentrations in barley – evidence of non-allosteric regulation.
    125. (2009). Variations in the composition of gelling agents affect morphophysiologicalandmolecular responses to deficiencies of phosphate and other nutrients.
    126. (2007). WRKY75 transcription factor is a modulator of phosphate acquisition and root development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.