Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

By Jack T Rowley and Ken H Joyner


This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles

Topics: Original Article
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (2006). (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). Years
  2. (2010). Assessing personal exposures to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Comptes Rendus Physique
  3. (2012). Assessment of population exposures to RF from emerging wireless technologies in different environments. Health Phys
  4. (2006). Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations. Radiat Prot Dosimetry
  5. (2010). Australian Radiation and Nuclear Protection Agency (personal communication),
  6. (1974). Bericht Langzeit-Immissionsmessung Streetparade, doc 1/22. Inventis AG, Zu ¨rich,
  7. (1974). Bericht Langzeit-Immissionsmessungen im Kanton Zu ¨rich, doc 2/24. Inventis AG, Zu ¨rich,
  8. (2010). Comparison of personal radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in different urban areas across Europe. Environ Res
  9. (2010). COMREG (Commission for Communications Regulation). Ireland http://www.
  10. Determination of exposure due to mobile phone base stations in an epidemiological study. Radiat Prot Dosimetry
  11. (2007). Determination of the general public exposure around GSM and UMTS base stations. Radiat Prot Dosimetry
  12. (2010). ECOLOG-Institute, Germany (personal communication),
  13. (2007). Electromagnetic Radiation Intensity Profile from Mobile Phone Base Stations and Subjective Symptoms among Office Workers. MSc thesis,
  14. Energı ´a y Turismo).
  15. (2010). European Centre for Environmental Medicine (personal communication),
  16. (2009). Exposure assessment procedures in presence of wideband digital wireless networks.
  17. (1996). Federal Communications Commission (FCC) guidelines for evaluating the environmental effects of radiofrequency radiation, ET Docket 93-62. Federal Register
  18. (2010). Forum Mobil, Switzerland (personal communication),
  19. (2010). Industry Canada and Health Canada (personal communication),
  20. (2005). Information System on Electromagnetic Fields Exposure and Health Impacts). Country Reports on EMF and Health: Sources, Regulations, and Risk Communication Approaches, Final Report,
  21. (2010). Institut fu ¨r Mobil- und Satellitenfunktechnik (IMST GmbH), Germany (personal communication),
  22. (2003). Institute for Postal services and Telecommunications). GSM Measurements.
  23. (1998). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300GHz). Health Phys
  24. (2008). International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Statement on EMF-Emitting New Technologies. Health Phys
  25. (2010). ITU estimates two billion people online by end 2010, Press Release,
  26. (2012). Kingdom Office of Communications: Mobile phone base station audits.
  27. (2010). Korea Radio Promotion Agency (personal communication),
  28. Levels of Radiofrequency Radiation from GSM Mobile Telephone Base Stations, ARPANSA
  29. (2012). Market Data.
  30. (2009). Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana. Radiat Prot Dosimetry
  31. (2005). Measurements of ground-level emissions from mobile Phone base stations in Bangkok using a low-cost RF field measurement system.
  32. (2006). Microwave Radiation from Mobile Telephone Base Stations.
  33. (2010). Ministry of Health, New Zealand (personal communication),
  34. (2012). Ministry of Health. (New Zealand). monitoringproject.asp#results (accessed 18
  35. (2010). Ministry of Public Health, Thailand (personal communication),
  36. (2004). Mo ¨glichkeiten und Grenzen der Minimierung von Mobilfunkimmissionen: Auf Messdaten und Simulationen basierende Optionen und Beispiele, Abschlussbericht fu ¨r das Bayerische Landesamt fu ¨r Umweltschutz,
  37. (2008). Mobile Networks Go Green: Minimizing Power Consumption and Leveraging Renewable Energy. ABI Research:
  38. (2001). Mobile telecommunication base stations- - -exposure to electromagnetic fields. Report of a Short Term Mission within COST 244bis,
  39. Mobilfunk). Wissenschaf(f)t Vertrauen.
  40. (2012). Narda Safety Test Solutions GmbH. E-Field Probe: EF0391- - -Measuring electric fields from 100 kHz to 3 GHz using instruments in the NBM-500 family. http://www. (accessed 18
  41. (2007). Nationale des Fre ´quences). Mesures de champs e ´lectromagne ´-tiques en France: Synthe `se
  42. (1974). NIR Exposure of Salzburg. Federal Communications Commission (ComCom),
  43. (2008). Occupational exposure to RF fields from base station antennas on rooftops. Ann Telecomm
  44. (2010). Orange Labs (personal communication),
  45. (2010). Organization. Base stations and wireless technologies,
  46. Organization. WHO research agenda for radiofrequency fields.
  47. Population exposure to VHF and UHF broadcast radiation in the united states.
  48. Potential exposure assessment errors associated with body-worn RF dosimeters.
  49. (2009). Radiation from mobile phone systems: is it perceived as a threat to people’s health? Bioelectromagnetics
  50. Radio Promotion Agency.
  51. (2010). Report on: Measurement of Cellular Base-station Emissions Using a Newly Developed RF Field Mapping System. pubs/radiation/cell_base_stations/abstract-resume-eng.php (accessed 19
  52. (2009). Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile-phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: a population-based survey with personal meter. Occup Environ Med
  53. (2001). Spectral measurements of radio frequency electromagnetic fields between 60MHz and 3.4GHz. The years
  54. (2010). Survey of electromagnetic field exposure in bedrooms of residences in lower Austria. Bioelectromagnetics
  55. (2006). Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia. Bioelectromagnetics
  56. (2007). Taller ‘‘Aspectos Te ´cnicos Y Regulatorios Relativos A Los Efectos De Las Emisiones Electromagne ´ticas No Ionizantes’’
  57. (2008). The Italian national electromagnetic field monitoring network. Ann Telecomm
  58. Wireless Networks- - -Regulatory Good Practice. In: Repacholi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.