Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Allergy as an epithelial barrier disease

By Pirkko Mattila, Sakari Joenväärä, Jutta Renkonen, Sanna Toppila-Salmi and Risto Renkonen

Abstract

The objective of this review is to focus on putative modified epithelial functions related to allergy. The dysregulation of the epithelial barrier might result in the allergen uptake, which could be the primary defect in the pathogenesis of allergic reaction. We review the literature of the role of respiratory epithelium as an active barrier, how allergens are transported through it and how it senses the hostile environmental allergens and other dangerous stimuli

Topics: Review
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3294629
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Citations

    1. (2011). A pathway-based approach to find novel markers of local glucocorticoid treatment in intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy
    2. (2007). A: Caveolar endocytosis is critical for BK virus infection of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.
    3. (2009). A: The non-proteolytic house dust mite allergen Der p 2 induce NF-kappaB and MAPK dependent activation of bronchial epithelial cells. Clin Exp Allergy
    4. (2009). A: Timothy grass pollen major allergen Phl p 1 activates respiratory epithelial cells by a non-protease mechanism. Clin Exp Allergy
    5. (2009). Abraham SN: Counteracting signaling activities in lipid rafts associated with the invasion of lung epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    6. (2010). Akdis CA: Role of Treg in immune regulation of allergic diseases.
    7. (2009). al: GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma ‘epidemic’. Allergy
    8. (2009). al: The NIH Human Microbiome Project. Genome Res
    9. (2010). al: Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review. Allergy
    10. (2007). Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy
    11. (2009). Allergic inflammation: where epithelial function interacts with immune response in atopic diseases. Drug News Perspect
    12. (2010). Allergic rhinitis: Pathophysiology. Allergy Asthma Proc
    13. (2009). An update on the genetics of atopic dermatitis: scratching the surface in
    14. (2010). Anaphylaxis: acute treatment and management. Chem Immunol Allergy
    15. (2009). BN: House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells. Nat Med
    16. (2010). Broide DH: Innate immunity.
    17. (2010). Canonica GW: The link between allergic rhinitis and asthma: the united airways disease. Expert Rev Clin Immunol
    18. (2007). Carvalho TM: Participation of macrophage membrane rafts in Trypanosoma cruzi invasion process. Biochem Biophys Res Commun
    19. (2009). Cigarette smoke facilitates allergen penetration across respiratory epithelium. Allergy
    20. (2008). CM: How epithelial cells detect danger: aiding the immune response. Allergy
    21. (2008). CM: Primary Nasal Epithelium Exposed to House Dust Mite Extract Shows Activated Expression in Allergic Individuals.
    22. (2003). Crystal structure of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and its likely biological function as a plant steroid carrier.
    23. (2011). Dendritic cells and airway epithelial cells at the interface between innate and adaptive immune responses. Allergy
    24. (2008). Drunen CM: Comparison of expression profiles induced by dust mite in airway epithelia reveals a common pathway. Allergy
    25. (2009). E: Allergen databases: current status and perspectives. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
    26. (2010). Epithelium: the interplay between innate and Th2 immunity. Immunol Cell Biol
    27. (2008). Filaggrin mutations, atopic eczema, hay fever, and asthma in children.
    28. (2008). Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018–time to act and change the course. Allergy
    29. (2008). Fokkens WJ: Considerations on the application of microarray analysis in rhinology. Rhinology
    30. (2009). Fraser-Liggett CM: Human Microbiome Project–paving the way to a better understanding of ourselves and our microbes. Drug Discov Today
    31. (2007). GB: Host resistance to lung infection mediated by major vault protein in epithelial cells. Science
    32. (2011). Genetic variations in toll-like receptor pathway genes influence asthma and atopy. Allergy
    33. (2010). Gern JE: Role of viral respiratory infections in asthma and asthma exacerbations. Lancet
    34. (2008). Haahtela T: In Allergy, ‘A new day has begun’. Allergy
    35. (2010). Has the time come to rethink the pathogenesis of asthma? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
    36. (2006). Helenius A: Virus entry: open sesame. Cell
    37. (2009). Hogan SP: Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis.
    38. (2010). Hohlfeld JM: Allergen particle binding by human primary bronchial epithelial cells is modulated by surfactant protein D. Respir Res
    39. (2010). Holgate ST: Genetics of allergic disease.
    40. (2006). Immunological mechanisms of allergenspecific immunotherapy. Nat Rev Immunol
    41. (2011). Inman MD: The effects of inhaled house dust mite on airway barrier function and sensitivity to inhaled methacholine in mice.
    42. (2011). Interactions of airway epithelium with protease allergens in the allergic response. Clin Exp Allergy
    43. (2006). JM: The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 directly interacts with the caveolar structural protein caveolin-1. J Virol
    44. (2011). Leung DY: Comparative proteomic profiling of patients with atopic dermatitis based on history of eczema herpeticum infection and Staphylococcus aureus colonization.
    45. (2010). Liang D: House dust mite regulate the lung inflammation of asthmatic mice through TLR4 pathway in airway epithelial cells. Cell Biochem Funct
    46. (2010). Mazmanian SK: Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota.
    47. (2010). Mazmanian SK: Has the microbiota played a critical role in the evolution of the adaptive immune system? Science
    48. (2007). Munoz-Barroso I: Newcastle disease virus may enter cells by caveolae-mediated endocytosis.
    49. (2011). of 8function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol
    50. (2011). Ogg GS: Common filaggrin null alleles are not associated with hymenoptera venom allergy in europeans. Int Arch Allergy Immunol
    51. (2007). Otzen DE: The major allergen from birch tree pollen, Bet v 1, binds and permeabilizes membranes. Biochemistry
    52. (2006). Pelkmans L: Systems biology of virus entry in mammalian cells. Cell Microbiol
    53. (2010). Prokopakis EP: Global airway disease beyond allergy. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep
    54. (2007). PW: Rapid systemic uptake of allergens through the respiratory mucosa.
    55. (2009). RC: Epithelium, inflammation, and immunity in the upper airways of humans: studies in chronic rhinosinusitis. Proc Am Thorac Soc
    56. (2010). Regulatory T cells in many flavors control asthma. Mucosal Immunol
    57. (2009). Renkonen R: Birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 bind to and travels through conjunctival epithelium in allergic patients. Allergy
    58. (2009). Renkonen R: Caveolar transport through nasal epithelium of birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in allergic patients.
    59. (2009). Renkonen R: Modelling of Bet v 1 binding to lipids.
    60. (2010). Renkonen R: Time-series nasal epithelial transcriptomics during natural pollen exposure in healthy subjects and allergic patients. Allergy
    61. (2010). SF: The influence of TSLP on the allergic response. Mucosal Immunol
    62. (2011). Shevchenko A: Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011, 108:1903-1907. doi:10.1186/2045-7022-1-5 Cite this article as: Mattila et al.: Allergy as an epithelial barrier disease. Clinical and Translational Allergy
    63. (2011). SV: Airway microbiota and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suboptimally controlled asthma.
    64. (2010). The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update. Clin Exp Immunol
    65. (2011). The atopic march: progression from atopic dermatitis to allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
    66. (2011). The Danger Signal, Extracellular ATP, Is a Sensor for an Airborne Allergen and Triggers IL-33 Release and Innate Th2-Type Responses.
    67. (2009). The epithelial gatekeeper against food allergy. Pediatr Neonatol
    68. (2007). The impact of pollen-related food allergens on pollen allergy. Allergy
    69. (2002). The major birch allergen, Bet v 1, shows affinity for a broad spectrum of physiological ligands.
    70. (2010). The microbiota and allergies/asthma. PLoS Pathog
    71. (2009). The role of the epithelium in airway remodeling in asthma. Proc Am Thorac Soc
    72. (2009). Traidl-Hoffmann C: Human epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and the skin differentially internalize grass pollen allergens.
    73. (2009). United airways again: high prevalence of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps in bronchiectasis. Allergy
    74. (2010). Unraveling the complex genetic underpinnings of asthma and allergic disorders. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol
    75. (2011). von Mutius E: Exposure to Mattila et al. Clinical and Translational Allergy 2011, 1:5 http://www.ctajournal.com/content/1/1/5 Page 7 of 8environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma.
    76. (2011). von Mutius E: Geneenvironment interaction for childhood asthma and exposure to farming in Central Europe.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.