Primary hepatic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is rarely encountered. There have been no reports to date of hepatic MFH associated with liver cirrhosis. The presence of liver cirrhosis is considered an adjunctive feature favoring sarcomatoid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the diagnosis of spindle cell tumors in liver. We describe here a 59-year-old man with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus infection 20 years ago. On abdominal computed tomography scanning, two distinct hepatic masses were identified in the background of cirrhosis, which had different radiological features from conventional HCC. He underwent segmentectomy for removal of the tumors. The pathological examination of surgically resected specimen revealed the large malignant spindle cell tumor and small conventional HCC. Additional tissue sampling and immunohistochemical stainings demonstrated that the spindle cell tumor was consistent with MFH. On the post-operative follow-up for 21 mo, a round mass showing similar radiological findings for the previous MFH was appeared on the surface of resection margin, suggesting the recurrence. Despite its rarity, hepatic MFH should be considered during differential diagnosis, even in cirrhotic patients, and extensive tissue sampling and immunohistochemical analyses are necessary in the diagnosis of hepatic spindle cell tumors
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