Article thumbnail

Environmental risk factors for psychosis

By Kimberlie Dean and Robin M. Murray


Genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the environment in which an individual's genes find expression is also crucial to the development of the illness. In this review of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, we consider risks operating prenatally and perinatally, during childhood, and then later in life prior to illness onset. Some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypoxia, and hazards nearer the onset of illness like drug abuse and migration. Others are much less certain. The importance of interaction between genetic and environmental risk is, however, undoubtedly important and there is emerging evidence for this from a range of sources. As the etiology of schiz-ophrenia is unraveled, the picture becomes more complex, but also more obviously relevant to the plight of the individual patient

Topics: Clinical Research
Publisher: Les Laboratoires Servier
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (1919). Frequency and causes.
  2. Gene-environment correlation and interaction in schizophrenia. In:
  3. Genes, environment and schizophrenia.
  4. (1999). Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders: the Maudsley twin psychosis series. Arch Gen Psychiatry.
  5. (1950). Section IX: The causes of the disease. In: