In order to stress the importance of P300 responses in drug development, we describe the spatiotemporal characteristics of this objective, evoked event-related potential. These brain activations reflect mnemonic function, in which limbic structures play a role. It is demonstrated that a pharmacological challenge concerning, for example, the cholinergic system in young healthy volunteers induces modifications in P300 reminiscent of the aging brain. We use this type of observation to build a model in which it can be verified whether the deterioration can be counteracted by treatment with “cognition-enhancing” drugs. If we accept the extrapolation of the pharmacological effects to symptomatology, scalp potential analysis offers an appropriate tool for the study of drug interactions in early proof-of-concept models
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