Article thumbnail

A Review of Carcinomas Arising in the Head and Neck Region in HIV-Positive Patients

By Bibianna Purgina, Liron Pantanowitz and Raja R. Seethala


The majority of malignancies arising in the head and neck among patients with AIDS are Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with HIV/AIDS are also at increased risk of developing several carcinomas of the head and neck. This paper focuses on these less common, albeit important, carcinomas. An English language literature search identified numerous population-based studies evaluating carcinomas in the head and neck of HIV-positive patients. Published results indicate that patients with HIV/AIDS are at an increased risk of developing mucosal squamous cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland, and Merkel cell carcinoma in this anatomic region. Data also suggest that HIV-positive patients with these cancers present at a younger age, with more aggressive disease and worse prognosis compared to HIV-negative patients. Treatment involves surgical resection with or without radiation therapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced and metastatic disease. AIDS patients, however, are more likely to suffer radiation treatment complications. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not altered the incidence of these malignancies

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (2009). A .K .C h a t u r v e d i ,M .M .M a d e l e i n e ,R .J .B i g g a r ,a n dE . A. Engels, “Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS,”
  2. (2005). a r n e s ,J .W .E v e s o n ,P .W .R e i c h a r t ,a n dD .S i d r a n s k y
  3. (2005). a r n e s ,J .W .E v e s o n ,P .W .R e i c h a r t ,a n dD .S i d r a n s k y , “Tumours of the salivary glands,”
  4. (2005). a r n e s ,J .W .E v e s o n ,P .W .R e i c h a r t ,a n dD .S i d r a n s k y , “Tumours ofthe oralcavity and oropharynx,”in World Health Organization Classification of Tumours:
  5. (1999). Alterations in head and neck cancer occurring in HIV-infected patients—results of a pilot, longitudinal, pro– spective study,”
  6. (2001). AssociationofcancerwithAIDS-related immunosuppression in adults,” J o u r n a lo ft h eA m e r i c a nM e d i c a lA s s o c i a t i o n ,v o l .
  7. (2010). Bona fide primary merkel cell carcinoma of an intraparotid lymph node in a HIV-positive patient,”
  8. (2006). C.M.Vajdic,S.P.McDonald,M.R.E.McCredie etal.,“Cancer incidence before and after kidney transplantation,”
  9. (2000). Cancer risk among men with, or at risk of,
  10. (2005). Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV cohort study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy,”
  11. (2005). Causes of death amonghumanimmunodeficiencyvirus (HIV)-infected adults in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: emerging role of hepatitis and cancers, persistent role of AIDS,”
  12. (1999). Cigarette smoking among gay and bisexual men,”
  13. (2008). Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma,”
  14. (2006). Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection seen at two hospitals in
  15. (2003). Ducimeti` ere et al., “Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients treated for human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population,”ClinicalInfectiousDiseases,vol.37,no.2,pp.292– 298,
  16. (1996). e l b y e ,T .R .C o t ´ e, D. West et al., “Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an EBV-associated tumour not significantly influenced by HIV-induced immunosuppression,”
  17. (2006). EBV lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in Mexican mestizo patients with chronic autoimmune diseases,”
  18. (2009). Effect of cigarette smoking on HIV acquisition, progression,
  19. (2008). Elevated risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva amongadults with
  20. (2002). Estimation of risk of cancers before occurrence of acquired immunodefi ciency syndrome in persons infected with human immunodefi ciency virus,”
  21. (1995). F l a i t z ,C .M .N i c h o l s ,K .A d l e r - S t o r t h z ,a n dM .J . Hicks, “Intraoral squamouscell carcinoma in humanimmunodeficiency virus infection. A clinicopathologic study,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and,
  22. (2010). Forastiere, “HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic,” The Lancet Oncology,
  23. (2004). Head and neck cancer in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection: incidence, outcome and association with Epstein-Barr virus,”
  24. (2010). Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in HIV-positive patients: a preliminaryinvestigationofviralassociations,”Head and Neck Pathology,
  25. (2000). Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiencyvirus-infected adults,”
  26. (2005). Human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancer,”
  27. (2003). Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the international agency for research on cancer multicenter study,”
  28. (2000). Human papillomavirus-associated cancers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,”Journal oftheNational
  29. (2005). Humanpapillomavirustypesinheadandnecksquamouscell carcinomas worldwide: a systemic review,”
  30. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis,”TheLancet,vol.370,no.9581,pp.59–67,2007.
  31. (2003). Incidence of malignant neoplasms among HIVinfected personsinScotland,”British
  32. (2010). K.D.Mertz,M.Pfaltz,T.Juntet al.,“Merkel cell polyomavirus is presentincommonwarts andcarcinomainsituoftheskin,” Human Pathology,
  33. (2008). Laryngeal cancer in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,”
  34. (1998). Laryngeal cancer in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [1],”
  35. (2006). M b u l a i t e y e ,E .T .K a t a b i r a ,H .W a b i n g ae ta l . ,“ S p e c t r u m of cancers among HIV-infected persons in Africa: the Uganda AIDS-Cancer Registry Match Study,”
  36. (2011). Merkel cell carcinoma associated with HIV:
  37. (2005). Merkel cell carcinoma of skin: diagnosis and management strategies,”
  38. (2010). Merkel cell carcinoma,”
  39. (2010). Merkel cell carcinoma: correlation of KIT expression with survival and evaluation of KIT gene mutational status,”
  40. (2006). Multifocal squamous cell carcinomaoftheconjunctiva withintraocularpenetration in a patient with
  41. Natural history and possible reactivation of human papillomavirus in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women,”
  42. (1999). Oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumors in human immunodeficiency viruspositive patients: acute response to radiation therapy,”
  43. (2004). Oral human papillomavirus infection in adults is associated with sexual behavior and HIV serostatus,”
  44. (2005). Oral malignancies in HIV disease: changes in disease presentation, increasing understanding of molecular pathogenesis, and current management,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology,
  45. (2007). Oralmalignanciesassociatedwith HIV,”
  46. (2009). Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant
  47. (2008). Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIVinfected patients in
  48. (2001). Presence of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa of HIV-infected and renal transplant patients,”
  49. (1998). Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in premalignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity in U.K. subjects: a novel method of detection,”
  50. (2002). Rates of non-AIDS-defining cancers inpeoplewithHIVinfectionbeforeandafterAIDS diagnosis,”
  51. (1999). Risk of cancer
  52. (2010). Salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers in individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in
  53. (2010). Shiffe r ,A .B .C o g n e t t a ,Y .C h a n g
  54. (2010). Society, Cancer Facts & Figures
  55. (2009). The changing face of head and neck cancer in the 21st century: the impact of hpv on the epidemiology and pathology of oralcancer,”
  56. (2002). The global health burden of infectionassociated cancers in the year
  57. (2006). The growing problem ofnon-AIDS-defining malignanciesin HIV,”
  58. (2005). The risk of cancer in HIV-infected people in southeast England: a cohort study,”
  59. (1996). The stressors and stress of being HIV-positive,”
  60. The viral etiology of oral cancer: evidence from the IARC multi-centric study,”
  61. (1996). Upper aerodigestive tract squamouscell carcinoma: the human immunodeficiency virus connection,”
  62. (2010). Wheeler et al.,“Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer,”