ITF2357 (givinostat) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties at low nanomolar concentrations. We report here a phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trial in healthy males administered 50, 100, 200, 400 or 600 mg orally. After 50 mg, mean maximal plasma concentrations reached 104 nmol/L 2 h after dosing, with a half-life of 6.9 h. After 100 mg, maximal concentration reached 199 nmol/L at 2.1 h with a half-life of 6.0 h. Repeat doses for 7 consecutive days of 50, 100 or 200 mg resulted in nearly the same kinetics. There were no serious adverse effects (AEs) and no organ toxicities. However, there was a dose-dependent but transient fall in platelets. After 7 daily doses of 50 or 100 mg, the mean decrease in platelets of 17 and 25% was not statistically significant and returned to baseline within 14 d. Blood removed from the subjects after oral dosing was cultured ex vivo with endotoxin, and the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-1Ra, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 was determined. Maximal reduction in IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 and IFNγ was observed 4 h after dosing but returned to baseline at 12 h. There was no significant reduction in IL-1Ra or IL-10. With daily dosing, the fall in cytokine production in blood cultures observed on day 7 was nearly the same as that of the first day. We conclude that dosing of 50 or 100 mg ITF2357 is safe in healthy humans and transiently but repeatedly reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines without affecting production of antiinflammatory cytokines
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