Article thumbnail

Breast cancer in young women

By Courtney A Gabriel and Susan M Domchek

Abstract

Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worthy of special attention due to the unique and complex issues that are raised. This article reviews specific challenges associated with the care of younger breast cancer patients, which include fertility preservation, management of inherited breast cancer syndromes, maintenance of bone health, secondary prevention, and attention to psychosocial issues

Topics: Review
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3096966
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2009). A: Breast cancer before age 40 years. Semin Oncol
  2. (2007). Absence of conclusive evidence for the safety and effi cacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in protecting against chemotherapyinduced gonadal injury. Oncologist
  3. (1999). AC: Age-related diff erences in the quality of life of breast carcinoma patients after treatment. Cancer
  4. (2006). Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors for early breast cancer after chemotherapyinduced amenorrhoea: caution and suggested guidelines.
  5. (1985). Age at fi rst primary as a determinant of the incidence of bilateral breast cancer. Cumulative and relative risks in a population-based case-control study. Cancer
  6. (2004). AJ: The diagnosis of breast cancer in women younger than 40. Breast
  7. (2002). Alvarez-Franco M: Outcome of conservatively managed early-onset breast cancer by BRCA1/2 status. Lancet
  8. AM: Complications following bilateral prophylactic mastectomy.
  9. (2007). Antitumor eff ect of zoledronic acid in previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma. Med Oncol
  10. (2007). Antitumor eff ects of clinical dosing regimens of bisphosphonates in experimental breast cancer bone metastasis.
  11. (2008). Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG): Adjuvant endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: 5-year follow-up of the ABCSG-12 bone-mineral density substudy. Lancet Oncol
  12. (2009). Beyond Li Fraumeni Syndrome: clinical characteristics of families with p53 germline mutations.
  13. (2001). Bonaiti-Pellie C: Sensitivity and predictive value of criteria for p53 germline mutation screening.
  14. (2003). Breast and ovarian cancer risks due to inherited mutations
  15. (2006). Breast carcinoma during pregnancy. International recommendations from an expert meeting. Cancer
  16. (2004). Brekelmans CT: Ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence in hereditary breast cancer following breast-conserving therapy.
  17. (2010). Chang GJ: Population-based study of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and survival outcomes of breast cancer patients.
  18. (2006). Cil AP, Bang H: Effi ciency of oocyte cryopreservation: a metaanalysis. Fertil Steril
  19. (1999). Clinical value of mammography for symptomatic women 35 years of age and younger.
  20. (2006). CMF versus goserelin as adjuvant therapy for node-negative, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer in premenopausal patients: a randomised trial (GABG trial IV-A-93).
  21. (2002). Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that infl uence them: an analysis of 27,825 patient evaluations. Radiology
  22. (1989). Contralateral breast carcinoma: an assessment of risk and prognosis in stage I (T1N0M0) and stage II (T1N1M0) patients with 20-year follow-up. Surgery
  23. (2002). Cox CE: Sexual functioning in long-term breast cancer survivors treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat
  24. (2000). DZ: Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy improves the outcome of selected patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.
  25. (2008). E: Zoledronic acid prevents bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.
  26. (2005). Eff ects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet
  27. (1984). Ellison LG: Second primary cancers of the breast: incidence and risk factors.
  28. (2004). EP: Web-based survey of fertility issues in young women with breast cancer.
  29. (2003). et al.: Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case Series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies.
  30. (2000). Factors infl uencing the eff ect of age on prognosis in breast cancer: population based study. BMJ
  31. (1969). Fraumeni JF Jr: Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome? Ann Intern Med
  32. (2007). G: Repeated intermittent low-dose therapy with zoledronic acid induces an early, sustained, and long-lasting decrease of peripheral vascular endothelial growth factor levels in cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res
  33. (1990). Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms. Science
  34. (2005). GOCSI Cooperative Group: A randomised factorial trial of sequential doxorubicin and CMF vs CMF and chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy followed by goserelin plus tamoxifen as adjuvant treatment of nodepositive breast cancer.
  35. (1994). Goldgar DE: Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Lancet
  36. (2000). Goldhirsch A: Is chemotherapy alone adequate for young women with oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer? Lancet
  37. (2002). Goldhirsch A: Very young women (<35 years) with operable breast cancer: features of disease at presentation. Ann Oncol
  38. (2009). Gonzalez-Angulo AM: Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Womens Health (Lond Engl)
  39. (2009). Greil R; ABCSG-12 Trial Investigators, Marth C: Endocrine therapy plus zoledronic acid in premenopausal breast cancer.
  40. (2000). H: Major improvement in the effi cacy of BRCA1 mutation screening using morphoclinical features of breast cancer. Cancer Res
  41. (1994). Hakulinen T: Survival of breast cancer patients after subsequent term pregnancy: “healthy mother eff ect”.
  42. (1999). Hormonal prevention of breast cancer: mimicking the protective eff ect of pregnancy.
  43. (1998). How might pregnancy immunize against breast cancer?
  44. (1996). HR: The National Cancer Data Base report on breast carcinoma characteristics and outcome in relation to age. Cancer
  45. (2001). JA: Diff erences in risk factors for local and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy for stage I and II breast cancer: pooled results of two large European randomized trials.
  46. (1997). JM: Germ-line mutations of TP53 in Li-Fraumeni families: an extended study of 39 families. Cancer Res
  47. (1993). JR: Contralateral breast cancer: clinical characteristics and impact on prognosis.
  48. (1994). JR: Relationship of patient age to pathologic features of the tumor and prognosis for patients with stage I or II breast cancer.
  49. (2009). Kissin MW: Pregnancy after breast cancer: the importance of active counselling and planning. Breast
  50. (2008). KL: Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defi nes a subset of breast cancers with shared patterns of gene expression.
  51. (2003). LA: Breast cancers among very young premenopausal women (United States). Cancer Causes Control
  52. (2004). Langendonckt A: Livebirth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Lancet
  53. (2001). LC: Effi cacy of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a personal and family history of breast cancer.
  54. (2007). Leuprorelin acetate every3-months depot versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fl uorouracil as adjuvant treatment in premenopausal patients with nodepositive breast cancer: the TABLE study.
  55. (2009). LHRH agonists for adjuvant therapy of early breast cancer in premenopausal women. Cochrane Db Syst Rev
  56. (1991). Li FP: Follow-up study of twenty-four families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Cancer Res
  57. (1994). LJ: Mastectomy versus conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Psychosocial consequences. Cancer
  58. (2002). McGuff og L, Easton DF: The pathology of familial breast cancer: predictive value of immunohistochemical markers estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor,
  59. (2007). Meta-analysis of clodronate and breast cancer survival.
  60. (2010). MJ: Incidence and time course of bleeding after longterm amenorrhea after breast cancer treatment: a prospective study. Cancer
  61. (2009). N: Prognostic eff ects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early breast cancer.
  62. (2006). Oktay K: American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on fertility preservation in cancer patients.
  63. (2008). Oktay K: Safety of fertility preservation by ovarian stimulation with letrozole and gonadotropins in patients with breast cancer: a prospective controlled study.
  64. (2006). Olivotto IA: Impact on survival of time from defi nitive surgery to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.
  65. (2005). open label, prospective study on the eff ect of zoledronic acid on the prevention of bone metastases in patients with recurrent solid tumors that did not present with bone metastases at baseline. Med Oncol
  66. (2000). Ostrander EA: Frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a population-based sample of young breast carcinoma cases. Cancer
  67. (1996). Ovarian ablation in early breast cancer: overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Lancet
  68. (2001). Ovarian failure after adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with rapid bone loss in women with earlystage breast cancer.
  69. (2006). Ovarian function and spontaneous pregnancy after combined heterotopic and orthotopic cryopreserved ovarian tissue transplantation in a patient previously treated with bone marrow transplantation: case report. Hum Reprod
  70. (2000). P53 germline mutations in childhood cancers and cancer risk for carrier individuals.
  71. (2009). Passariello R: The challenge of imaging dense breast parenchyma: is magnetic resonance mammography the technique of choice? A comparative study with x-ray mammography and whole-breast ultrasound. Invest Radiol
  72. (2010). Peccatori F: Safety of pregnancy in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Suppl
  73. (2007). Peretz T: Rapid development of post-radiotherapy sarcoma and breast cancer in a patient with a novel germline ‘de-novo’ TP53 mutation. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  74. (2010). physical activity, diet, and prognosis in breast and gynecologic cancers.
  75. (2005). Pregnancy after transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in a patient with ovarian failure after chemotherapy.
  76. (1994). Prevalence and diversity of constitutional mutations in the p53 gene among 21 Li-Fraumeni families. Cancer Res
  77. (1992). Prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations of the p53 gene among patients with sarcoma.
  78. (2002). Prevention and Observation of Surgical End Points Study Group: Prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.
  79. (2004). Prophylactic mastectomy for the prevention of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  80. (2006). RC: Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA
  81. (2003). RD: Adjuvant chemotherapy followed by goserelin versus either modality alone for premenopausal lymph nodenegative breast cancer: a randomized trial.
  82. (2006). Rebbeck TR: Mortality after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol
  83. (2002). Recursive partitioning identifi es patients at high and low risk for ipsilateral tumor recurrence after breast-conserving surgery and radiation.
  84. (2003). RI: Health status and quality of life in patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s disease treated on Southwest Oncology Group Study 9133. J Clin Oncol
  85. (1999). Risk of menopause during the fi rst year after breast cancer diagnosis.
  86. (1988). RW: A cancer family syndrome in twenty-four kindreds. Cancer Res
  87. (1999). RW: Clinical and histological predictors of contralateral breast cancer.
  88. (2005). S: Does timing of adjuvant chemotherapy infl uence the prognosis after early breast cancer?
  89. (2009). SA: The prevalence of germ-line TP53 mutations in women diagnosed with breast cancer before age 30. Fam Cancer
  90. (2003). Sauerbrei W: Survival analyses from the ZEBRA study. goserelin (Zoladex) versus CMF in premenopausal women with nodepositive breast cancer.
  91. (1990). Spitalier JM: Why are local recurrences after breast-conserving therapy more frequent in younger patients?
  92. (2006). Spontaneous conceptions and live birth after heterotopic ovarian transplantation: is there a germline stem cell connection? Hum Reprod
  93. (2005). SW: Effi cacy of prophylactic mastectomy in women with unilateral breast cancer: a research network project.
  94. (2006). Swain SM: Amenorrhea in premenopausal women after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  95. (1999). T: A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer.
  96. (1990). The role of US in breast imaging. Radiology
  97. (2001). Theriault RL: Female patients with breast carcinoma age 30 years and younger have a poor prognosis: the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Cancer
  98. (2005). Tollenaar RA: Risk reduction of contralateral breast cancer and survival after contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  99. (2010). Tsiftsis DD: Pregnancy after breast cancer. A comprehensive review. J Surg Oncol
  100. (2007). Virnig BA: Increasing use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer patients: a trend toward more aggressive surgical treatment.
  101. (2000). White E: Breast density as a predictor of mammographic detection: comparison of interval- and screen-detected cancers.
  102. (2010). Wolmark N: Longer therapy, iatrogenic amenorrhea, and survival in early breast cancer.
  103. (2007). Yaff e M,
  104. (1996). Zeillinger R: A constitutional de novo mutation in exon 8 of the p53 gene in a patient with multiple primary malignancies.