Article thumbnail

Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Ostracod: Stenocypris major

By Mohammad Shuhaimi-Othman, Nadzifah Yakub, Nur-Amalina Ramle and Ahmad Abas


Adults of freshwater ostracod Stenocypris major (Crustacea, Candonidae) were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) concentrations. Mortality was assessed, and median lethal times (LT50) and concentrations (LC50) were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC50s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 25.2, 13.1, 1189.8, 526.2, 19743.7, 278.9, 3101.9, and 510.2 μg/L, respectively. Metals bioconcentration in S. major increases with exposure to increasing concentrations, and Cd was the most toxic to S. major, followed by Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Al, and Ni (Cd>Cu>Fe>Mn>Pb>Zn>Al>Ni). Comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean reveals that S. major is equally or more sensitive to metals than most other tested crustacean

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (1949). A method for the rapid graphic solution of time-percentage effect curves,”
  2. (1949). A simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments,”
  3. (1993). Accumulation, regulation and toxicity of copper, zinc, lead and mercury
  4. (2001). Acute toxicity of copper, zinc and cadmium to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca,”
  5. (1995). Acute toxicity of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn), phenol and sodium on Allium cepa, Lepidium sativum and Daphnia magna:c o m p a r a t i v e investigations and the practical applications,”
  6. (2009). Acute toxicity of metals and referencetoxicantstoafreshwaterostracod,Cyprissubglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models,”
  7. (1981). An Illustrated Key to the Freshwater Ostracod
  8. (2003). Aquatic toxicology test methods,”
  9. (1996). Are the heavy metals cadmium and zinc regulated in freshwater prawns?”
  10. (2007). Bioconcentration and depuration of copper, cadmium, and zinc mixtures by the freshwater amphipod
  11. (2005). Cadmium, zinc and the uptakeofcalciumbytwocrabs,CarcinusmaenasandEriocheir sinensis,”
  12. (1992). Cadmium, zinc, lead and copper in Chironomus riparius (Meigen) larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae): uptake and effects,”
  13. (2004). Crustacea: ostracoda,” in Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region,
  14. (2002). Cyst-based toxicity tests XIV— application of the ostracod solid-phase microbiotest for toxicity monitoring of river sediments in
  15. (2007). EffectsofCadmiumandZinconthefeedingbehaviouroftwo freshwater crustaceans: Atyaephyra desmarestii (Decapoda) and Echinogammarus meridionalis
  16. (2008). Environment Quality Report
  17. (2010). Extant freshwater ostracodes (Crustacea:
  18. (1995). Freshwater test,” in Fundamental of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental fate and Risk
  19. (2006). Heavy metal pollution status
  20. (1995). Impact of toxicities and potential interactions of flocculants and coagulant aids on whole effluent toxicity testing,”
  21. (2006). Influence of light in acute toxicity bioassays of imidacloprid and zinc pyrithione to zooplankton crustaceans,”
  22. (2010). Influence of water hardness on acute toxicity of copper and zinc on fish,”
  23. (1989). Investigation of correlation between physicochemical properties of metals and their toxicity to the water flea
  24. (2002). Late Holocene pollution intheGernika estuary (southern Bay of Biscay) evidenced by the study of Foraminifera and
  25. (1989). Metal regulation, tolerance, and body burdens in the larvae of the genus
  26. (1992). Public Health Association), Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,A m e r -ican Public Health Association,
  27. (2004). Relative sensitivity distribution of aquatic invertebrates to organic and metal
  28. (1987). Response of a freshwater ostracod (Cypris subglobosa Sowerby) exposed to copper at different pH levels,”
  29. (1997). S u e d e l ,J .H .R o d g e r s ,a n dE .D e a v e r ,“ E x p e r i m e n t a l factors that may affect toxicity of cadmium to freshwater organisms,”
  30. (1979). The acute toxicity of copper to Gammarus fasciatus, a freshwater amphipod,”
  31. (1990). The sensitivity of Australian freshwateraquaticorganismstoheavymetals,”ScientificSeries Report 88/18, Victorian Environmental Protection Authority,
  32. (1989). Tolerances of five benthic invertebrates to hydrogen ions and metals (Cd, Pb,
  33. (2004). u i z ,M .L .G o n z´
  34. u o m aa n dP .S .R a i n b o w ,Metal Contamination in Aquatic Environment. Science and Lateral Management,
  35. (1988). Use of Gammarus pulex (L.) in safety evaluation tests: culture and selection of a sensitive life stage,”