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Disease-causing Mutation in PKR2 Receptor Reveals a Critical Role of Positive Charges in the Second Intracellular Loop for G-protein Coupling and Receptor Trafficking*

By Zhen Peng, Yong Tang, Hunjin Luo, Fang Jiang, Jiannan Yang, Lin Sun and Jia-Da Li

Abstract

Prokineticins are a pair of signal factors involved in many physiological processes by binding to two closely related G-protein-coupled receptors, PKR1 and PKR2. Recently, mutations in prokineticin 2 (PK2) and PKR2 are found to be associated with Kallmann syndrome and/or idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, disorders characterized by delayed puberty and infertility. However, little is known how PKRs interact and activate G-proteins to elicit signal transduction. In the present study, we took advantage of one disease-associated mutation (R164Q) located in the second intracellular (IL2) loop of PKR2, to investigate the role of IL2 loop in the cell signaling, G-protein binding and receptor trafficking. R164Q mutant PKR2 showed normal cell surface expression and ligand binding capacity. However, the PKR2 signaling was abolished by R164Q mutation. We demonstrated that R164Q mutation disrupted the interaction of IL2 loop to the Gαq, Gαi, and Gα16-proteins. A positive-charged amino acid at this position is required for proper function, and the signaling efficacy and potency depend on the net amount of positive charges. We also demonstrated that the interactive partner of Arg-164 may localize in the C-terminal five residues of Gαq-protein. A series of mutation analysis indicated that the basic amino acids at the C terminus of IL2 loop may function cooperatively in GPCRs. Furthermore, R164Q mutation also results in minimal ligand-induced endocytosis of PKR2. As many GPCRs share structural homology in the C terminus of IL2 loop, our findings may have general application in understanding structure and function of GPCRs

Topics: Signal Transduction
Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3089504
Provided by: PubMed Central
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