Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Revisiting the microtubule based quantum models of mind: tubulin bound GTP cannot pump microtubule coherence or provide energy for alpha <-> beta computation in stable microtubules

By Danko Georgiev


The current paper investigates the biological models of stable brain microtubules as quantum or classical computers whose function is based on electron hopping associated with kinking of the tubulin dimer. Hameroff (1998a, 1998b, 2003a, 2003b), Tuszynski et al. (1998), Hagan et al. (2000), Mershin et al. (1999); Mershin (2003) suppose that the energy needed could be somehow delivered via guanosine diphosphate (GDP) exchange for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or via cycles of tubulin bound GTP hydrolysis. Here is presented biological and structural data from electron diffraction studies performed by Lowe et al. (2001) and computer simulation with MDL ® Chime Version 2.6 SP4, explaining and visualizing the inconsistency of the proposed tubulin bit (qubit) GTP energized alpha <-> beta computation and/or tubulin bound GTP pumped coherence in stable microtubules

Topics: Biophysics
Year: 2003
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1993). A model of the energy transfer mechanism in microtubules involving domainwalltype solitons. doi
  2. (2001). A Unifying Hypothesis for the Conformational Change of Tubulin.
  3. (2003). Calculation of the Electrical Conduction by Microtubule Protofilaments, Sheets and Cylinders. Submitted to Physical Review E.
  4. (2003). Concerning the chemical nature of tubulin subunits that cap and stabilize microtubules.
  5. (1991). Dilution of individual microtubules observed in real time in vitro: evidence that cap size is small and independent of elongation rate. doi
  6. (1991). Dilution-induced disassembly of microtubules: relation to dynamic instability and the GTP cap. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. doi
  7. (2003). Electric and magnetic fields inside neurons and their impact upon the cytoskeletal microtubules.
  8. (1998). Funda-mental geometry: The Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model of consciousness. In: The geometric universe -Science, geometry and the work of Roger
  9. (1997). How tubulin subunits are lost from the shortening ends of microtubules. doi
  10. (1981). Kinetic analysis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis associated with tubulin polymerization.
  11. (1989). Mechanism of GTP hydrolysis in tubulin polymerization: characterization of the kinetic intermediate microtubule-GDP-Pi using phosphate analogues.
  12. (2002). Microtubule dynamics.
  13. (1974). Microtubule surface lattice and subunit structure and observations on reassembly.
  14. (1988). Molecular automata in microtubules: basic computational logic of the living state?
  15. (2002). Molecular Biology Of Cell: Microtubules.
  16. (1999). Phosphate release during microtubule assembly: what stabilizes growing microtubules? doi
  17. (1997). Possible link between guanosine 5' triphosphate hydrolysis and solitary waves in microtubules. doi
  18. (2003). Quantum biology: At what levels are quantum effects relevant?
  19. (1998). Quantum computation in microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model of consciousness.
  20. (1992). Role of GTP hydrolysis in microtubule dynamics: information from a slowly hydrolyzable analogue,
  21. (1990). Role of GTP hydrolysis in microtubule polymerization: evidence for a coupled hydrolysis mechanism. doi
  22. (1994). Solitary wave dynamics as a mechanism for explaining the internal motion during microtubule growth.
  23. (1988). Stabilization of microtubules by inorganic phosphate and its structural analogues, the fluoride complexes of aluminum and beryllium.
  24. (2000). Structure-Function Relationships in Yeast Tubulins.
  25. (2003). Testing the biological basis of the Orch-OR model of consciousness.
  26. (1994). The cell's microtubules: selforganization and information processing properties.
  27. (1994). The free energy for hydrolysis of a microtubule-bound nucleotide triphosphate is near zero: all of the free energy for hydrolysis is stored in the microtubule lattice.
  28. (1994). The minimum GTP cap required to stabilize microtubules.
  29. (1996). Tubulin rings are universal polymers of the tubulin family - α/β, γ and FtsZ.
  30. (1976). Tubulinnucleotide interactions during the polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.