Article thumbnail

Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

By Margaret Good and Anthony Duignan

Abstract

Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3087418
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1975). A comparison of the accuracy of a human and a bovine tuberculin PPD for testing cattle with a comparative cervical test,”
  2. A comparison of the relative potencies of various bovine PPD tuberculins in naturally infected tuberculous cattle,”
  3. (2002). A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex,”
  4. (2011). Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study,”
  5. (2006). Advances in understanding disease epidemiology and implications for control and eradication of tuberculosis in livestock: the experience from
  6. An epidemiological evaluation of Mycobacterium bovis infections in wild game animals
  7. (1987). Bovine tubercle bacilli and disease in animals and man,”
  8. (1994). Bovine tuberculosis control and eradication programs
  9. (2009). Bovine Tuberculosis in Canadian wildlife: an updated history review article compte rendu,”
  10. (1947). Bovine Tuberculosis: Including a Contrast with Human Tuberculosis,
  11. (2005). Characterization of Mycobacterium caprae isolates from Europe by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit genotyping,”
  12. Clinical Tuberculosis,
  13. (2007). Cluster of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis:e v i d e n c ef o r person-to-person transmission in
  14. (2010). Coffey et al., “Evidence of genetic resistance of cattle to infection with Mycobacterium bovis,”
  15. (2009). Coinfection is an important factor in epidemiological studies: the first serosurvey of the aoudad (Ammotragus lervia),”
  16. (2006). Collins,“DiagnosisofMycobacteriumbovisinfectionincattle by use of the gamma-interferon (Bovigam) assay,”
  17. (2005). Comparison of commercially available PPDs: practical considerations for diagnosis and control of bovine tuberculosis,”
  18. (2002). Conducting science in the public eye,”
  19. (2007). Dhakal et al., “Isolation of Mycobacterium spp. from milking buffaloes and cattle in
  20. (2001). Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council,
  21. (1995). e i l l ya n dC .J .D a b o r n ,“ T h ee p i d e m i o l o g yo f Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: a review,” Tubercle and Lung Disease,
  22. (2001). e r e z ,J .C a l z a d a
  23. (1995). Effect of a recent injection of purified protein derivative on diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis,”
  24. (1997). Effect of Treatment on
  25. (1997). Environmental mycobacteria in Ireland as a source of non-specific sensitisation to tuberculins,”
  26. (2008). Estimating the true prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk
  27. (2010). Farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis?”
  28. (1986). Field trials to determine a suitable injection dose of bovine PPD tuberculin for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in naturally infected cattle,”
  29. Food Safety Authority of Ireland,
  30. (2010). Genetic correlations between measures of Mycobacterium bovis infection and economically important traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows,”
  31. (2006). H e w i n s o n ,H .M .V o r d e r m e i e r ,N .H .S m i t h ,a n d
  32. (2010). Human bovine tuberculosis—remains in the differential,”
  33. Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States,
  34. (1995). Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in the United States,
  35. (2009). i c e r o ,H .O l i v e r a ,A .H e r n ´ andez-Solis, E. Ram´ ırezCasanova, and A. Escobar-Guti´ errez, “Frequency of Mycobacterium bovis as an etiologic agent in extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-positive and -negative mexican patients,”
  36. (2010). I n g r a m ,P .B r e m n e r ,T .J .I n g l i s ,R .J .M u r r a y ,a n d
  37. (2005). Immune responses in bovine tuberculosis: towards new strategies for the diagnosis and control of disease,”
  38. (2004). Immunity to tuberculosis,”
  39. (2009). Immunological responses and protective immunity in BCG vaccinated badgers following endobronchial infection with Mycobacterium bovis,”
  40. (2004). Impacting policy through science and education,”
  41. (2007). Improvement of spoligotyping with additional spacer sequences for characterizationofMycobacteriumbovisandM.capraeisolatesfrom Spain,” Tuberculosis,
  42. (1964). Investigations into the problem of nonspecific reactors to the single caudal fold tuberculin test in Victorian dairy cattle,”
  43. (2008). Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis & M. tuberculosis from cattle of some farms in north India—possible relevance in human health,”
  44. (2006). La Rua-Domenech, “Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis,”
  45. (1986). Laboratory assay methods for bovine tuberculin PPD (report of the Expert
  46. Laboratory study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and calves,”Veterinary Record,vol.111,no.24,pp.550–557,1982.
  47. (2009). Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from freeranging wildlife in South African game reserves,”
  48. (1962). Non-specific or cross-sensitivity reactions to tuberculin in cattle,”
  49. (2008). o a d ,S .H .D o w n s ,P .A .D u r re ta l . ,“ B l o o d - b a s e d assays to detect Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle missed by tuberculin skin testing,”
  50. (2010). o d r e u i l ,E .J e z i o r s k i
  51. o o d ,T .A .C l e g g ,F .M u r p h y ,a n dS .J .M o r e ,“ T h e comparative performance of the single intradermalcomparative tuberculin test in Irish cattle, using tuberculin PPDcombinationsfromdifferentmanufacturers,”Veterinary Microbiology.
  52. (2009). o r a n ,J .C a r s o n ,E .C o s t e l l o ,a n dS .J .M o r e ,“ A n outbreak of tuberculosis affecting cattle and people on an Irish dairy farm, following the consumption of raw milk,”
  53. (2008). O’Keeffe et al., “Multiplex immunoassay for serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection
  54. (1964). on animal health problems affecting intra-Community trade in bovine animals and swine (64/432/EEC, with later amendments). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Consolidated legislation (CONSLEG),”
  55. (2009). Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Wild Meerkats (Suricata suricatta),”
  56. (1985). Population dynamics of the badger (Meles meles) and the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis),”
  57. (1986). Potency testing of bovine tuberculins,”
  58. (2009). Pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in a black rhinoceros (Diceros bicomis minor)
  59. (1995). Quality testing of tuberculins and its practical consequences for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis,”
  60. (1978). R e i l l ya n dB .N .M a cC l a n c y ,“ E s t i m a t i o no ft h e sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the intradermal tuberculintest,”IrishVeterinaryJournal,vol.32,pp.127–128,
  61. (2006). R e v i r i e g oG o r d e j oa n dJ .P .V e r m e e r s c h ,“ T o w a r d s eradication of bovine tuberculosis in the European Union,”
  62. (1951). Relative sensitivity of different skin areas of cattle to intradermal tests,”
  63. (2003). Risk factors for disclosure of additional tuberculous cattle in attestedclear herds that had one animal with a confirmed lesion of tuberculosis at slaughter during
  64. (2003). Science, politics and animal health policy: epidemiology in action,”
  65. (2008). Sentinel-based surveillance of coyotes to detect bovine tuberculosis,
  66. (2005). Shedding of Mycobacterium bovis in the nasal mucus of cattle infected experimentally with tuberculosis by the intranasal and intratracheal routes,”
  67. (2008). Spoligotype diversity of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae animal isolates,”
  68. (1994). Status of bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes in
  69. (2006). Surveillance and risk management during the latter stages of eradication: experiences from
  70. (1984). Survival of Mycobacterium bovis in defined environmental conditions,”
  71. (2007). Suspected congenital generalised tuberculosis in a newborn calf,”
  72. (2006). The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis,”
  73. (1983). The potency of bovine PPD tuberculins in guinea-pigs and in tuberculous cattle,”
  74. (1995). The role of cattle-to-cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in cattle in the Republic of Ireland: a review,”
  75. (2006). The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk,”
  76. (2007). The tuberculin test— a safe means to test a cattle population for bovine tuberculosis,”
  77. (1988). The tuberculosis eradication programme in Ireland: a review of scientific and policy advances since
  78. (1965). The use of dilute tuberculins for testing cattle,” The British veterinary journal,
  79. (1930). The Viability of Bovinus (Bovinus) on Pasture Land,
  80. (1976). Transmission of tubercle bacilli: the effects of chemotherapy,”
  81. (1973). Tuberculin testing,” The Veterinary Record,
  82. (1939). Tuberculin tests in cattle,”
  83. (1959). Tuberculois,” in Diseases due to Bacteria,A .
  84. (2007). Tuberculosis and tuberculin,” in “Strictly Scientific and Practical Sense”. A century of the Central Veterinary Institute
  85. (1958). Tuberculosis in Animals and Man: A Study in Comparative Pathology,
  86. (1986). Tuberculosis lesions in reactor cows,”
  87. (2005). Tuberculosis—persistent threat to human health,”
  88. (2007). Tuberculosis: a reemerging disease at the interface of domestic animals and wildlife,”
  89. (2001). Use of synthetic peptides derivedfromtheantigensESAT-6andCFP-10fordifferential diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis
  90. (2008). Vaccination of European badgers (Meles meles) with BCG by the subcutaneous and mucosal routes induces protective immunity against endobronchial challenge with Mycobacterium bovis,”
  91. (2010). Vordermeier,andA.O.Whelan,“Repeattuberculinskintesting leads to desensitisation in naturally infected tuberculous cattle which is associated with elevated
  92. (2009). What is needed to eradicate bovine tuberculosis successfully: an Ireland perspective,”
  93. (2006). Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges,”VeterinaryMicrobiology,vol.112,no.2-4,pp.91– 100,
  94. (1987). World Health Organisation (WHO), “Requirements for biological substances no. 16, annex 1: requirements for tuberculins,”
  95. (2009). World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), “Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals
  96. (2007). Z.Cvetnic,V.Katalinic-Jankovic,B.Sostaricetal.,“Mycobacterium caprae in cattle and humans in Croatia,”
  97. (1998). Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries,” Emerging Infectious Diseases,