Retinyl esters are the major chemical forms of vitamin A stored in the liver, and can be delivered to peripheral tissues for conversion into biologically active forms. The function and regulation of the hepatic genes that are potentially involved in catalyzing the hydrolysis of retinyl esters remain unclear. Here we show that two lipid hydrolytic genes, pancreatic-related protein 2 (mPlrp2) and procolipase (mClps), expressed specifically in the mouse pancreas, are associated with the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Light illumination deficiency or administration of 5′-AMP elevated the ratio of AdoMet to AdoHcy and induced the expression in the liver of mPlrp2 and mClps, which was blocked by all-trans retinoic acid. Mice fed a vitamin A-free diet exhibited increased activation of hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression, which was associated with increased methylation of histone H3K4 residues located near the mPlrp2 and mClps promoters. Inhibition of hepatic mPlrp2 and mClps expression by a methylase inhibitor, methylthioadenosine, markedly decreased plasma retinol levels in these mice. The activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-T6 cell line specifically expressed mClps and mPlrp2. Inhibition of mClps gene expressions by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) decreased hydrolysis of retinyl esters in the HSC-T6 cell line. These data suggest that the conditional expression of mPlrp2 and mClps is involved in the hydrolysis of retinyl esters in the mouse liver
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.