The Us3 serine threonine kinases perform multiple roles in alphaherpesvirus infection and can localize to distinct subcellular compartments. Transient expression of Us3 in cells results in two dramatic alterations of the actin cytoskeleton: production of actin-based filamentous processes (FPs); and breakdown of actin stress fibres giving rise to rounded cell morphology. In our recent study on FPs induced by HSV-2 Us3, we noted that FP formation was diminished when HSV-2 Us3 was trapped within the nucleus following treatment of transfected cells with leptomycin B (LMB). This observation suggested that subcellular localization of Us3 could be a determinant of Us3-induced FP formation. Here, we review what is known regarding the effect of subcellular localization of Us3 on FP production and on actin stress fibre breakdown and discuss the potential significance of studies aimed at defining the requirements for subcellular localization of Us3
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