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Modulating Neuromuscular Junction Density Changes in Botulinum Toxin–Treated Orbicularis Oculi Muscle

By Andrew R. Harrison, Zachary Berbos, Renzo A. Zaldivar, Brian C. Anderson, Mollie Semmer, Michael S. Lee and Linda K. McLoon


While botulinum toxin injections are effective in reducing muscle spasms in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm patients, they have a relatively short duration of action due to formation of new functional neuromuscular junctions. Co-injection of botulinum toxin–treated eyelids with corticotrophin-releasing factor or antibody to insulin growth factor–receptor prevented neuromuscular junction increases. The long-term goal is to increase the duration of effectiveness of botulinum toxin and reduce the lifetime exposure in patients

Topics: Articles
Publisher: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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