The activity of many proteins orchestrating different biological processes is regulated by allostery, where ligand binding at one site alters the function of another site. Allosteric changes can be brought about by either a change in the dynamics of a protein, or alteration in its mean structure. We have investigated the mechanisms of allostery induced by chemically distinct ligands in the cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE5. PDE5 is the target for catalytic site inhibitors, such as sildenafil, that are used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. PDE5 is a multidomain protein and contains two N-terminal cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, bacterial adenylyl cyclase, FhLA transcriptional regulator (GAF) domains, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Cyclic GMP binding to the GAFa domain and sildenafil binding to the catalytic domain result in conformational changes, which to date have been studied either with individual domains or with purified enzyme. Employing intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, which can monitor conformational changes both in vitro and in intact cells, we show that binding of cGMP and sildenafil to PDE5 results in distinct conformations of the protein. Metal ions bound to the catalytic site also allosterically modulated cGMP- and sildenafil-induced conformational changes. The sildenafil-induced conformational change was temperature-sensitive, whereas cGMP-induced conformational change was independent of temperature. This indicates that different allosteric ligands can regulate the conformation of a multidomain protein by distinct mechanisms. Importantly, this novel PDE5 sensor has general physiological and clinical relevance because it allows the identification of regulators that can modulate PDE5 conformation in vivo
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.