This paper will explore how the often illegal activities of hackers (in the original usage of the term to refer to individuals who modify computer hardware and software) may produce valuable innovations. It will explore how these innovations, termed Outlaw Innovations, may be appropriated by firms and provide case studies where this has taken place. The paper will seek to locate this phenomenon in the existing innovation literature, and explore the implications for firm innovation processes. It will outline a series of possible research questions and conclude by indicating the next steps in the development of this\ud research
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