Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Gossip, Sexual Recombination and the El Farol Bar: modelling the emergence of heterogeneity

By Bruce Edmonds


Brian Arthur's `El Farol Bar' model is extended so that the agents also learn and communicate. The learning and communication is implemented using an evolutionary process acting upon a population of mental models inside each agent. The evolutionary process is based on a Genetic Programming algorithm. Each gene is composed of two tree-structures: one to control its action and one to determine its communication. A detailed case-study from the simulations show how the agents have differentiated so that by the end of the run they had taken on very different roles. Thus the introduction of a flexible learning process and an expressive internal representation has allowed the emergence of heterogeneity

Topics: Artificial Intelligence, Complexity Theory, Machine Learning, Social Psychology
Year: 1998
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1996). A Cognitive Approach to Modelling Structural Change. Workshop on Modelling Structural Change,
  2. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection.
  3. (1994). Inductive Reasoning and Bounded Rationality.
  4. (1996). Logic, Reasoning and a Programming Language for Simulating Economic and Business Processes with Artificial Intelligent Agents.
  5. (1997). Modelling Bounded Rationality using Evolutionary Techniques.
  6. Modelling Economic Learning as Modelling. Systems and Cybernetics. (Also available at
  7. (1997). Modelling Socially Intelligent Agents in Organisations.
  8. (1996). Modelling the Process of Market Emergence.
  9. SDML: A Multi-Agent Language for Organizational Modelling. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. (Also available at
  10. (1995). Strongly Typed Genetic Programming,
  11. (1997). The Revelation Principle of Bounded Rationality. Sante Fe working paper 97-06-060. (Title page at

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.